John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973), was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
Tolkien was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford University from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature there from 1945 to 1959. He was a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972.
After his death, Tolkien's son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, poems, fictional histories, invented languages, and literary essays about an imagined world called Arda, and Middle-earth within it. Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the word legendarium to the larger part of these writings.
While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings when they were published in paperback in the United States led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre. This has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more precisely, of high fantasy. Tolkien's writings have inspired many other works of fantasy and have had a lasting effect on the entire field. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945".
Tolkien family origins
Most of Tolkien's paternal ancestors were craftsmen. The Tolkien family had its roots in the German Kingdom of Saxony, but had been living in England since the 18th century, becoming "quickly intensely English". The surname Tolkien is said to come from the Standard German word tollkühn ("foolhardy", etymologically corresponding to English dull-keen, literally oxymoron), and the surname Rashbold, given to two characters in Tolkien's The Notion Club Papers, is similarly a compound word composed of two words with contrasting meanings. German writers have suggested that in reality the name is more likely to derive from the village Tolkynen in Rastenburg in East Prussia (after WWII Tołkiny, Poland). The name of that place is ultimately of Baltic origin.
Tolkien's maternal grandparents, John and Edith Jane Suffield, were Baptists who lived in Birmingham and owned a shop in the city centre. The Suffield family had run various businesses out of the same building, called Lamb House, since the early 1800s. From 1810 Tolkien's great-great-grandfather William Suffield had a book and stationery shop there; from 1826 Tolkien's great-grandfather, also named John Suffield, had a drapery and hosiery business there.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (now Free State Province, part of South Africa) to Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857–1896), an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel, née Suffield (1870–1904). The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel, who was born on 17 February 1894.
As a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event which some think would have later echoes in his stories, although Tolkien admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a family house-boy, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning.
When he was three, Tolkien went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them. This left the family without an income, and so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham. Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole (now in Hall Green), then a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would later inspire scenes in his books, along with Worcestershire towns and villages such as Bromsgrove, Alcester, and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which would be used in his fiction.
Mabel Tolkien herself taught her two sons, and Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. She taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early. He could read by the age of four and could write fluently soon afterwards. His mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing". He liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy works by George MacDonald. In addition, the "Fairy Books" of Andrew Lang were particularly important to him and their influence is apparent in some of his later writings.
Tolkien attended King Edward's School, Birmingham, and later St. Philip's School, before winning a Foundation Scholarship and returning to King Edward's School. While a pupil at King Edward's School, he was one of a party of cadets from the school's Officers Training Corps who helped "line the route" for the coronation parade of King George V, being posted just outside the gates of Buckingham Palace.
Mabel Tolkien was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1900 despite vehement protests by her Baptist family, who then stopped all financial assistance to her. In 1904, when Tolkien was 12, she died of acute diabetes at Fern Cottage in Rednal, which she was then renting. Mabel Tolkien was then about 34 years of age, about as old as a person with diabetes mellitus type 1 could live with no treatment—insulin would not be discovered until two decades later. For the rest of his own life Tolkien felt that his mother had become a martyr for her faith. This feeling had a profound effect on his own Catholic beliefs.
Prior to her death, Mabel Tolkien had assigned the guardianship of her sons to Fr. Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory, who was assigned to bring them up as good Catholics. Tolkien grew up in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham. He lived there in the shadow of Perrott's Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston Waterworks, which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works. Another strong influence was the romantic medievalist paintings of Edward Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery has a large and world-renowned collection of works and had put it on free public display from around 1908.
In 1911, while they were at King Edward's School, Birmingham, Tolkien and three friends, Rob Gilson, Geoffrey Smith, and Christopher Wiseman, formed a semi-secret society which they called "the T.C.B.S.", the initials standing for "Tea Club and Barrovian Society", alluding to their fondness for drinking tea in Barrow's Stores near the school and, secretly, in the school library. After leaving school, the members stayed in touch, and in December 1914 they held a "Council" in London, at Wiseman's home. For Tolkien, the result of this meeting was a strong dedication to writing poetry.
In the summer of 1911, Tolkien went on holiday in Switzerland, a trip that he recollects vividly in a 1968 letter, noting that Bilbo's journey across the Misty Mountains ("including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods") is directly based on his adventures as their party of 12 hiked from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen and on to camp in the moraines beyond Mürren. Fifty-seven years later, Tolkien remembered his regret at leaving the view of the eternal snows of Jungfrau and Silberhorn ("the Silvertine (Celebdil) of my dreams"). They went across the Kleine Scheidegg to Grindelwald and on across the Grosse Scheidegg to Meiringen. They continued across the Grimsel Pass, through the upper Valais to Brig and on to the Aletsch glacier and Zermatt.
Courtship and marriage
At the age of 16, Tolkien met Edith Mary Bratt, who was three years older, when he and his brother Hilary moved into the boarding house in which she lived. According to Humphrey Carpenter:
Edith and Ronald took to frequenting Birmingham teashops, especially one which had a balcony overlooking the pavement. There they would sit and throw sugarlumps into the hats of passers-by, moving to the next table when the sugar bowl was empty. ... With two people of their personalities and in their position, romance was bound to flourish. Both were orphans in need of affection, and they found that they could give it to each other. During the summer of 1909, they decided that they were in love.
His guardian, Father Francis Morgan, viewing Edith as a distraction from Tolkien's school work and horrified that his young charge was seriously involved with a Protestant girl, prohibited him from meeting, talking to, or even corresponding with her until he was 21. He obeyed this prohibition to the letter, with one notable early exception which made Father Morgan threaten to cut short his University career if he did not stop.
On the evening of his twenty-first birthday, Tolkien wrote to Edith a declaration of his love and asked her to marry him. Edith replied saying that she had already agreed to marry another man, but that she had done so because she had believed Tolkien had forgotten her. The two met up and beneath a railway viaduct renewed their love; Edith returned her engagement ring and announced that she was marrying Tolkien instead. Following their engagement Edith converted to Catholicism at Tolkien's insistence. They were formally engaged in Birmingham, in January 1913, and married in Warwick, England, at Saint Mary Immaculate Catholic Church on 22 March 1916.
World War I
In 1916, the United Kingdom was engaged in fighting World War I, and Tolkien volunteered for military service and was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers. He trained with the 13th (Reserve) Battalion on Cannock Chase, Staffordshire, for eleven months. In a letter to Edith, Tolkien complained, "Gentlemen are rare among the superiors, and even human beings rare indeed." Tolkien was then transferred to the 11th (Service) Battalion with the British Expeditionary Force, arriving in France on 4 June 1916. He later wrote, "Junior officers were being killed off, a dozen a minute. Parting from my wife then ... it was like a death."
Although Kitchener's army enshrined old social boundaries, it also chipped away at the class divide by throwing men from all walks of life into a desperate situation together. Tolkien wrote that the experience taught him, 'a deep sympathy and feeling for the Tommy; especially the plain soldier from the agricultural counties.' He remained profoundly grateful for the lesson. For a long time, he had been imprisoned in a tower, not of pearl, but of ivory.
Tolkien's time in combat was a terrible stress for Edith, who feared that every knock on the door might carry news of her husband's death. In order to get around the British Army's postal censorship, the Tolkiens had developed a secret code which accompanied his letters home. By using the code, Edith was able to track her husband's movements on a map of the Western Front.
On 27 October 1916 Tolkien came down with trench fever, a disease carried by the lice which were common in the dugouts. According to the memoirs of the Reverend Mervyn S. Evers, Anglican chaplain to the Lancashire Fusiliers:
On one occasion I spent the night with the Brigade Machine Gun Officer and the Signals Officer in one of the captured German dugouts ... We dossed down for the night in the hopes of getting some sleep, but it was not to be. We no sooner lay down than hordes of lice got up. So we went round to the Medical Officer, who was also in the dugout with his equipment, and he gave us some ointment which he assured us would keep the little brutes away. We anointed ourselves all over with the stuff and again lay down in great hopes, but it was not to be, because instead of discouraging them it seemed to act like a kind of hors d'oeuvre and the little beggars went at their feast with renewed vigour.
Tolkien was invalided to England on 8 November 1916. Many of his dearest school friends, including Gilson and Smith of the T.C.B.S., were killed in the war. In later years, Tolkien indignantly declared that those who searched his works for parallels to the Second World War were entirely mistaken:
One has indeed personally to come under the shadow of war to feel fully its oppression; but as the years go by it seems now often forgotten that to be caught in youth by 1914 was no less hideous an experience than to be involved in 1939 and the following years. By 1918 all but one of my close friends were dead.
During his recovery in a cottage in Great Haywood, Staffordshire, he began to work on what he called The Book of Lost Tales, beginning with The Fall of Gondolin. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, but he had recovered enough to do home service at various camps and was promoted to Lieutenant. It was at this time that Edith bore their first child, John Francis Reuel Tolkien.
When he was stationed at Kingston upon Hull, he and Edith went walking in the woods at nearby Roos, and Edith began to dance for him in a clearing among the flowering hemlock. After his wife's death in 1971, Tolkien remembered,
I never called Edith Luthien – but she was the source of the story that in time became the chief part of the Silmarillion. It was first conceived in a small woodland glade filled with hemlocks at Roos in Yorkshire (where I was for a brief time in command of an outpost of the Humber Garrison in 1917, and she was able to live with me for a while). In those days her hair was raven, her skin clear, her eyes brighter than you have seen them, and she could sing – and dance. But the story has gone crooked, & I am left, and I cannot plead before the inexorable Mandos.
Academic and writing career
Tolkien's first civilian job after World War I was at the Oxford English Dictionary, where he worked mainly on the history and etymology of words of Germanic origin beginning with the letter W. In 1920 he took up a post as Reader in English Language at the University of Leeds, and in 1924 he was made a professor there.Template:Citation needed While at Leeds he produced A Middle English Vocabulary and, with E. V. Gordon, a definitive edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, both becoming academic standard works for many decades. He also translated Sir Gawain, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo. In 1925 he returned to Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon,Template:Citation needed with a fellowship at Pembroke College.
During his time at Pembroke, Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings, whilst living at 20 Northmoor Road in North Oxford (where a blue plaque was placed in 2002). He also published a philological essay in 1932 on the name "Nodens", following Sir Mortimer Wheeler's unearthing of a Roman Asclepieion at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, in 1928.
Of Tolkien's academic publications, the 1936 lecture "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics" had a lasting influence on Beowulf research. Lewis E. Nicholson said that the article Tolkien wrote about Beowulf is "widely recognized as a turning point in Beowulfian criticism", noting that Tolkien established the primacy of the poetic nature of the work as opposed to its purely linguistic elements. At the time, the consensus of scholarship deprecated Beowulf for dealing with childish battles with monsters rather than realistic tribal warfare; Tolkien argued that the author of Beowulf was addressing human destiny in general, not as limited by particular tribal politics, and therefore the monsters were essential to the poem. Where Beowulf does deal with specific tribal struggles, as at Finnsburg, Tolkien argued firmly against reading in fantastic elements. In the essay, Tolkien also revealed how highly he regarded Beowulf: "Beowulf is among my most valued sources," and this influence may be seen throughout his Middle-Earth legendarium.
According to Humphrey Carpenter, Tolkien had an ingenious means of beginning his series of lectures on Beowulf:
He would come silently into the room, fix the audience with his gaze, and suddenly begin to declaim in a resounding voice the opening lines of the poem in the original Anglo-Saxon, commencing with a great cry of Hwaet! (The first word of this and several other Old English poems), which some undergraduates took to be 'Quiet!' It was not so much a recitation as a dramatic performance, an impersonation of an Anglo-Saxon bard in a mead hall, and it impressed generations of students because it brought home to them that Beowulf was not just a set text to be read for the purposes of examination, but a powerful piece of dramatic poetry.
World War II
In the run-up to World War II, Tolkien was earmarked as a codebreaker. In January 1939, he was asked whether he would be prepared to serve in the cryptographical department of the Foreign Office in the event of national emergency. He replied in the affirmative and, beginning on 27 March, took an instructional course at the London HQ of the Government Code and Cypher School. However, although he was "keen" to become a codebreaker, he was informed in October that his services would not be required at that time. Ultimately he never served as one. In 2009, The Daily Telegraph claimed Tolkien turned down a £500-a-year offer to become a full-time recruit for unknown reasons.
In 1945, Tolkien moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature,Template:Citation needed in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959. He served as an external examiner for University College, Dublin, for many years. In 1954 Tolkien received an honorary degree from the National University of Ireland (of which U.C.D. was a constituent college). Tolkien completed The Lord of the Rings in 1948, close to a decade after the first sketches.
Tolkien also helped to translate the Jerusalem Bible, which was published in 1966.
The Tolkiens had four children: John Francis Reuel Tolkien (17 November 1917 – 22 January 2003), Michael Hilary Reuel Tolkien (22 October 1920 – 27 February 1984), Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924) and Priscilla Mary Anne Reuel Tolkien (born 18 June 1929). Tolkien was very devoted to his children and sent them illustrated letters from Father Christmas when they were young. Each year more characters were added, such as the Polar Bear (Father Christmas's helper), the Snow Man (his gardener), Ilbereth the elf (his secretary), and various other, minor characters. The major characters would relate tales of Father Christmas's battles against goblins who rode on bats and the various pranks committed by the Polar Bear.
C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis, whom Tolkien first met at Oxford, was perhaps his closest friend and colleague, although their relationship cooled later in their lives. They had a shared affection for good talk, laughter, and beer, and in May 1927 Tolkien enrolled Lewis in the Kolbítar ("Coalbiters": "those who lounge so close to the fire in winter that they 'bite the coal'"), a club which read Icelandic sagas in the original Old Norse, and, as Carpenter notes, "a long and complex friendship had begun." It was Tolkien (and Hugo Dyson) who helped Lewis return to Christianity, and Tolkien was accustomed to read aloud passages from his Silmarillion mythology, The Hobbit, and The Lord of the Rings to Lewis's strong approval and encouragement at the Inklings—often meeting in Lewis's big Magdalen sitting-room—and in private.
It was the arrival of Charles Williams, who worked for Oxford University Press, that changed the relationship between Tolkien and Lewis. Lewis's enthusiasm shifted almost imperceptibly from Tolkien to Williams, especially during the writing of Lewis's third novel That Hideous Strength.
Tolkien had for a long time been extremely bothered by what he perceived as Lewis's Anti-Catholicism. In a letter to his son Christopher, he declared:
... hatred of our church is after all the real only final foundation of the C[hurch] of E[ngland]—so deep laid that it remains even when all the superstructure seems removed (C.S.L. for instance reveres the Blessed Sacrament, and admires nuns!). Yet if a Lutheran is put in jail he is up in arms; but if Catholic priests are slaughtered—he disbelieves it (and I daresay really thinks they asked for it).
Lewis's growing reputation as a Christian apologist and his return to the Anglican fold also annoyed Tolkien, who had a deep resentment of the Church of England. By the mid-forties, Tolkien felt that Lewis was receiving a good deal "too much [publicity] for his or any of our tastes".
Tolkien and Lewis might have grown closer during their days at Headington, but this was prevented by Lewis's marriage to Joy Davidman. Tolkien felt that Lewis expected his friends to visit and socialize with both him and his wife, even though, as a bachelor in the thirties when the Inklings had met, Lewis had often ignored the fact that his friends, including Tolkien, had wives to go home to. In his biography of Tolkien, Carpenter suggests that Tolkien may have felt betrayed by the marriage and resented a woman's intrusion into their close friendship, just as Edith Tolkien had felt jealous of Lewis's intrusion into her marriage. It did not help matters that Lewis did not initially tell Tolkien about his marriage to Davidman or that, when Tolkien finally did find out, he also discovered that Lewis had married a divorcee, which was offensive to Tolkien's Catholic beliefs. Tolkien described the marriage as "very strange".
The cessation of Tolkien's frequent meetings with Lewis in the 1950s marked the end of the "clubbable" chapter in Tolkien's life, which started with the T.C.B.S. at school and ended with the Inklings at Oxford.
His friendship with Lewis was nevertheless renewed to some degree in later years. As Tolkien was to comment in a letter to Priscilla after Lewis's death in November 1963: "So far I have felt the normal feelings of a man of my age—like an old tree that is losing all its leaves one by one: this feels like an axe-blow near the roots."
W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden, who had spent much of his life as an avowed Marxist, began corresponding with Tolkien during the mid-1950s. By the time, Auden had broken with his former beliefs and returned to the Anglicanism of his childhood. They remained close friends for the remainder of Tolkien's life. In one letter, Auden recalled,
"I don't think I have ever told you what an unforgettable experience it was for me as an undergraduate, hearing you recite Beowulf. The voice was the voice of Gandalf."
In addition, Auden was among the most prominent literary critics to praise The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien wrote in a 1971 letter:
I am [...] very deeply in Auden's debt in recent years. His support of me and interest in my work has been one of my chief encouragements. He gave me very good reviews, notices and letters from the beginning when it was by no means a popular thing to do. He was, in fact, sneered at for it.
Retirement and old age
During his life in retirement, from 1959 up to his death in 1973, Tolkien received steadily increasing public attention and literary fame. The sales of his books were so profitable that he regretted he had not chosen early retirement. While at first he wrote enthusiastic answers to readers' enquiries, he became more and more bothered by the emerging Tolkien fandom, especially among the hippie movement in the United States. In a 1972 letter he deplored having become a cult-figure, but admitted that "even the nose of a very modest idol [...] cannot remain entirely untickled by the sweet smell of incense!"
Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth, which was then a seaside resort patronized by the British upper class. Although Tolkien's status as a bestselling author gave them easy entry into polite society, Tolkien deeply missed the company of his fellow intellectuals. Edith, however, was overjoyed to step into the role of a society hostess, which was the reason Tolkien selected Bournemouth in the first place.
According to Humphrey Carpenter,
Those friends who knew Ronald and Edith Tolkien over the years never doubted that there was deep affection between them. It was visible in the small things, the almost absurd degree in which each worried about the other's health, and the care in which they chose and wrapped each other's birthday presents'; and in the large matters, the way in which Ronald willingly abandoned such a large part of his life in retirement to give Edith the last years in Bournemouth that he felt she deserved, and the degree in which she showed pride in his fame as an author. A principal source of happiness to them was their shared love of their family. This bound them together until the end of their lives, and it was perhaps the strongest force in the marriage. They delighted to discuss and mull over every detail of the lives of their children, and later their grandchildren.
Tolkien was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the New Year's Honours List of 1 January 1972 and received the insignia of the Order at Buckingham Palace on 28 March 1972.
Tolkien's wife, Edith, died on 29 November 1971, at the age of 82. Tolkien had the name Lúthien engraved on the stone at Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford. When Tolkien died 21 months later on 2 September 1973, at the age of 81, he was buried in the same grave, with Beren added to his name. The engravings read:
Tolkien was a devout Roman Catholic, and in his religious and political views he was mostly conservative, in the sense of favouring established conventions and orthodoxies over innovation and modernization; in 1943 he wrote, "My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs)—or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy."
Tolkien had an intense dislike for the side effects of industrialization, which he considered to be devouring the English countryside. For most of his adult life, he was disdainful of cars, preferring to ride a bicycle. This attitude can be seen in his work, most famously in the portrayal of the forced "industrialization" of the Shire in The Lord of the Rings.
Many commentators have remarked on a number of potential parallels between the Middle-earth saga and events in Tolkien's lifetime. The Lord of the Rings is often thought to represent England during and immediately after World War II. Tolkien ardently rejected this opinion in the foreword to the second edition of the novel, stating he preferred applicability to allegory. This theme is taken up at greater length in his essay "On Fairy-Stories", where he argues that fairy-stories are so apt because they are consistent both within themselves and with some truths about reality. He concludes that Christianity itself follows this pattern of inner consistency and external truth. His belief in the fundamental truths of Christianity leads commentators to find Christian themes in The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien objected strongly to C. S. Lewis's use of religious references in his stories, which were often overtly allegorical. However, Tolkien wrote that the Mount Doom scene exemplified lines from the Lord's Prayer.
His love of myths and his devout faith came together in his assertion that he believed that mythology is the divine echo of "the Truth". This view was expressed in his poem Mythopoeia, and his idea that myths held "fundamental truths" became a central theme of the Inklings in general.
I vividly remember going to church with him in Bournemouth. He was a devout Roman Catholic and it was soon after the Church had changed the liturgy from Latin to English. My grandfather obviously didn't agree with this and made all the responses very loudly in Latin while the rest of the congregation answered in English. I found the whole experience quite excruciating, but my grandfather was oblivious. He simply had to do what he believed to be right.
Politics and race
Tolkien voiced support for Francisco Franco's Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War upon learning that Soviet-trained Republican death squads were destroying churches and murdering large numbers of priests and nuns.
After a 1944 meeting, Tolkien expressed admiration for the South African poet and Roman Catholic convert Roy Campbell, who had fought with Franco's armies in Spain. Dressed in his uniform as a British Army officer, Campbell vividly described to Tolkien and Lewis the Republican atrocities which he had witnessed, including the massacre of the Carmelite monks of Toledo. To the outrage of the British intelligentsia, Campbell's subsequent poetry had painted the Civil War as an uncomplicated battle between Christianity and Communism. As a result, Tolkien regarded Campbell as a defender of the Catholic faith. C. S. Lewis, however, had composed poetry condemning what he referred to as Campbell's "mixture of Catholicism and Fascism". When the three met in 1944, Lewis read his anti-Campbell verse aloud, to loud peals of laughter from Campbell and Tolkien. As a result, a lasting friendship began between the three which lasted until Campbell's death.
At a time when many Western writers and intellectuals openly admired Stalin, Tolkien made no effort to hide his contempt for the Soviet dictator. Even during World War II, when Britain was allied with the USSR, Tolkien referred to Stalin as "that bloodthirsty old murderer" and expressed hope that the Americans would overthrow him after Hitler's defeat.
However, in 1961, Tolkien sharply criticized a Swedish commentator who suggested that The Lord of the Rings was an anti-communist parable and identified the Dark Lord with Stalin. Tolkien indignantly retorted that his legendarium was conceived long before the October Revolution of 1917. He indignantly added, "Such an allegory is entirely foreign to my thought."
Debate over rac
The question of racist or racialist elements in Tolkien's views and works has been the matter of some scholarly debate.
Christine Chism distinguishes accusations as falling into three categories: intentional racism, unconscious Eurocentric bias, and an evolution from latent racism in Tolkien's early work to a conscious rejection of racist tendencies in his late work.
Tolkien expressed disgust at what he acknowledged as racism and once wrote of racial segregation in South Africa, "The treatment of colour nearly always horrifies anyone going out from Britain."
Opposition to Nazism
Tolkien openly opposed Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party prior to the Second World War. In 1938, the German publishing house Rütten & Loening Verlag was preparing to release The Hobbit in Nazi Germany, but to Tolkien's outrage he was asked beforehand whether he was of Aryan origin. In a letter to his British publisher Stanley Unwin, he condemned Nazi "race-doctrine" and anti-Semitism as "wholly pernicious and unscientific". He added that he was considering giving no response and "letting a German translation go hang". He provided two letters to Rütten & Loening and instructed Unwin to send whichever he preferred. Only one of these letters, the less tactful of the two, is known to survive. In this letter, Tolkien began by denying any affiliation with the Indo-Aryans. He continued:
But if I am to understand that you are enquiring whether I am of Jewish origin, I can only reply that I regret that I appear to have no ancestors of that gifted people. My great-great-grandfather came to England in the eighteenth century from Germany: the main part of my descent is therefore purely English, and I am an English subject—which should be sufficient. I have been accustomed, nonetheless, to regard my German name with pride, and continued to do so throughout the period of the late regrettable war, in which I served in the English army. I cannot, however, forbear to comment that if impertinent and irrelevant inquiries of this sort are to become the rule in matters of literature, then the time is not far distant when a German name will no longer be a source of pride.
In a 1941 letter to his son Michael, he wrote:
You have to understand the good in things, to detect the real evil. But no one ever calls on me to 'broadcast', or do a postscript! Yet I suppose I know better than most what is the truth about this 'Nordic' nonsense. Anyway, I have in this War a burning private grudge—which would probably make me a better soldier at 49 than I was at 22: against that ruddy little ignoramus Adolf Hitler ... Ruining, perverting, misapplying, and making for ever accursed, that noble northern spirit, a supreme contribution to Europe, which I have ever loved, and tried to present in its true light. Nowhere, incidentally, was it nobler than in England, nor more early sanctified and Christianized.
In 1968, he objected to a description of Middle-earth as "Nordic", a term he said he disliked because of its association with racialist theories.
Tolkien was horrified and disgusted by the Allied use of total war tactics against civilians from Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. In a 1945 letter to his son Christopher, he wrote:
We were supposed to have reached a stage of civilization in which it might still be necessary to execute a criminal, but not to gloat, or to hang his wife and child by him while the orc-crowd hooted. The destruction of Germany, be it 100 times merited, is one of the most appalling world-catastrophes. Well, well,—you and I can do nothing about it. And that [should] be a measure of the amount of guilt that can justly be assumed to attach to any member of a country who is not a member of its actual Government. Well the first War of the Machines seems to be drawing to its final inconclusive chapter—leaving, alas, everyone the poorer, many bereaved or maimed and millions dead, and only one thing triumphant: the Machines.
He was also disgusted by the anti-German propaganda which was used to further the British war effort. In 1944, he wrote in a letter to his son Christopher:
... it is distressing to see the press grovelling in the gutter as low as Goebbels in his prime, shrieking that any German commander who holds out in a desperate situation (when, too, the military needs of his side clearly benefit) is a drunkard, and a besotted fanatic. ... There was a solemn article in the local paper seriously advocating systematic exterminating of the entire German nation as the only proper course after military victory: because, if you please, they are rattlesnakes, and don't know the difference between good and evil! (What of the writer?) The Germans have just as much right to declare the Poles and Jews exterminable vermin, subhuman, as we have to select the Germans: in other words, no right, whatever they have done.
He was horrified by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, referring to the scientists of the Manhattan Project as "these lunatic physicists" and "Babel-builders".
Beginning with The Book of Lost Tales, written while recuperating from illnesses contracted during The Battle of the Somme, Tolkien devised several themes that were reused in successive drafts of his legendarium. The two most prominent stories, the tale of Beren and Lúthien and that of Túrin, were carried forward into long narrative poems (published in The Lays of Beleriand).
- Main article: J. R. R. Tolkien's influences
British adventure stories
One of the greatest influences on Tolkien was the Arts and Crafts polymath William Morris. Tolkien wished to imitate Morris's prose and poetry romances, from which, along with some general aspects of approach, he took hints for the names of features such as the Dead Marshes in The Lord of the Rings and Mirkwood.
Edward Wyke-Smith's The Marvellous Land of Snergs, with its "table-high" title characters, strongly influenced the incidents, themes, and depiction of Bilbo's race in The Hobbit.
Tolkien also cited H. Rider Haggard's novel She in a telephone interview: "I suppose as a boy She interested me as much as anything—like the Greek shard of Amyntas [Amenartas], which was the kind of machine by which everything got moving." A supposed facsimile of this potsherd appeared in Haggard's first edition, and the ancient inscription it bore, once translated, led the English characters to She's ancient kingdom. Critics have compared this device to the Testament of Isildur in The Lord of the Rings and to Tolkien's efforts to produce as an illustration a realistic page from the Book of Mazarbul. Critics starting with Edwin Muir have found resemblances between Haggard's romances and Tolkien's.
Tolkien wrote of being impressed as a boy by S. R. Crockett's historical novel The Black Douglas and of basing the Necromancer (Sauron) on its villain, Gilles de Retz. Incidents in both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are similar in narrative and style to the novel, and its overall style and imagery have been suggested as an influence on Tolkien.
Tolkien was much inspired by early Germanic, especially Anglo-Saxon literature, poetry, and mythology, which were his chosen and much-loved areas of expertise. These sources of inspiration included Anglo-Saxon literature such as Beowulf, Norse sagas such as the Volsunga saga and the Hervarar saga, the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda, the Nibelungenlied, and numerous other culturally related works. Despite the similarities of his work to the Volsunga saga and the Nibelungenlied, which were the basis for Richard Wagner's opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen, Tolkien dismissed critics' direct comparisons to Wagner, telling his publisher, "Both rings were round, and there the resemblance ceases." However, some critics believe that Tolkien was, in fact, indebted to Wagner for elements such as the "concept of the Ring as giving the owner mastery of the world ..." Two of the characteristics possessed by the One Ring, its inherent malevolence and corrupting power upon minds and wills, were not present in the mythical sources but have a central role in Wagner's opera.
Tolkien did also acknowledge several non-Germanic influences or sources for some of his stories and ideas, including Homer, Sophocles, and the Finnish and Karelian national epic, the Kalevala. Dimitra Fimi, Douglas A. Anderson, John Garth, and many other prominent Tolkien scholars believe that Tolkien also drew influence from a variety of Celtic (Scottish, Irish, and Welsh) history and legends. However, after the Silmarillion manuscript was rejected, in part for its "eye-splitting" Celtic names, Tolkien denied their Celtic origin:
Needless to say they are not Celtic! Neither are the tales. I do know Celtic things (many in their original languages Irish and Welsh), and feel for them a certain distaste: largely for their fundamental unreason. They have bright colour, but are like a broken stained glass window reassembled without design. They are in fact 'mad' as your reader says—but I don't believe I am.
The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision. That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practically all references to anything like 'religion', to cults or practices, in the imaginary world. For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism.
Specifically, Paul H. Kocher argues that Tolkien describes evil in the orthodox Christian way as the absence of good. He cites many examples in The Lord of the Rings, such as Sauron's "Lidless Eye": "the black slit of its pupil opened on a pit, a window into nothing." Kocher sees Tolkien's source as Thomas Aquinas, "whom it is reasonable to suppose that Tolkien, as a medievalist and a Catholic, knows well". Tom Shippey makes the same point, but, instead of referring to Aquinas, says Tolkien was very familiar with Alfred the Great's Anglo-Saxon translation of Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, known as the Lays of Boethius. Shippey contends that this Christian view of evil is most clearly stated by Boethius: "evil is nothing." He says Tolkien used the corollary that evil cannot create as the basis of Frodo's remark, "the Shadow ... can only mock, it cannot make: not real new things of its own," and related remarks by Treebeard and Elrond. He goes on to argue that in The Lord of the Rings evil does sometimes seem to be an independent force, more than merely the absence of good (though not independent to the point of the Manichaean heresy), and suggests that Alfred's additions to his translation of Boethius may have inspired that view.
Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics
As well as his fiction, Tolkien was also a leading author of academic literary criticism. His seminal 1936 lecture, later published as an article, revolutionized the treatment of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf by literary critics. The essay remains highly influential in the study of Old English literature to this day. Beowulf is one of the most significant influences upon Tolkien's later fiction, with major details of both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings being adapted from the poem. The piece reveals many of the aspects of Beowulf which Tolkien found most inspiring, most prominently the role of monsters in literature, particularly that of the dragon which appears in the final third of the poem:
As for the poem, one dragon, however hot, does not make a summer, or a host; and a man might well exchange for one good dragon what he would not sell for a wilderness. And dragons, real dragons, essential both to the machinery and the ideas of a poem or tale, are actually rare.
Tolkien wrote a brief "Sketch of the Mythology" which included the tales of Beren and Lúthien and of Túrin, and that sketch eventually evolved into the Quenta Silmarillion, an epic history that Tolkien started three times but never published. Tolkien hoped to publish it along with The Lord of the Rings, but publishers (both Allen & Unwin and Collins) got cold feet; moreover printing costs were very high in the post-war years, leading to The Lord of the Rings being published in three volumes. The story of this continuous redrafting is told in the posthumous series The History of Middle-earth, edited by Tolkien's son, Christopher Tolkien. From around 1936, Tolkien began to extend this framework to include the tale of The Fall of Númenor, which was inspired by the legend of Atlantis. Published in 1977, the final work, entitled The Silmarillion, received the Locus Award for Best Fantasy novel in 1978.
Children's books and other short works
In addition to his mythopoeic compositions, Tolkien enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain his children. He wrote annual Christmas letters from Father Christmas for them, building up a series of short stories (later compiled and published as The Father Christmas Letters). Other stories included Mr. Bliss and Roverandom (for children), and Leaf by Niggle (part of Tree and Leaf), The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, On Fairy-Stories, Smith of Wootton Major and Farmer Giles of Ham. Roverandom and Smith of Wootton Major, like The Hobbit, borrowed ideas from his legendarium.
Tolkien never expected his stories to become popular, but by sheer accident a book called The Hobbit, which he had written some years before for his own children, came in 1936 to the attention of Susan Dagnall, an employee of the London publishing firm George Allen & Unwin, who persuaded Tolkien to submit it for publication. However, the book attracted adult readers as well as children, and it became popular enough for the publishers to ask Tolkien to produce a sequel.
The Lord of the Rings
Even though he felt uninspired, the request for a sequel prompted Tolkien to begin what would become his most famous work: the epic novel The Lord of the Rings (originally published in three volumes 1954–1955). Tolkien spent more than ten years writing the primary narrative and appendices for The Lord of the Rings, during which time he received the constant support of the Inklings, in particular his closest friend Lewis, the author of The Chronicles of Narnia. Both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set against the background of The Silmarillion, but in a time long after it.
Tolkien at first intended The Lord of the Rings to be a children's tale in the style of The Hobbit, but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing. Though a direct sequel to The Hobbit, it addressed an older audience, drawing on the immense back story of Beleriand that Tolkien had constructed in previous years, and which eventually saw posthumous publication in The Silmarillion and other volumes. Tolkien's influence weighs heavily on the fantasy genre that grew up after the success of The Lord of the Rings.
The Lord of the Rings became immensely popular in the 1960s and has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the 20th century, judged by both sales and reader surveys. In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's Best-loved Book". Australians voted The Lord of the Rings "My Favourite Book" in a 2004 survey conducted by the Australian ABC. In a 1999 poll of Amazon.com customers, The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium". In 2002 Tolkien was voted the 92nd "greatest Briton" in a poll conducted by the BBC, and in 2004 he was voted 35th in the SABC3's Great South Africans, the only person to appear in both lists. His popularity is not limited to the English-speaking world: in a 2004 poll inspired by the UK's "Big Read" survey, about 250,000 Germans found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite work of literature.
Tolkien had appointed his son Christopher to be his literary executor, and he (with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, later a well-known fantasy author in his own right) organized some of his father's unpublished material into a single coherent volume, published as The Silmarillion in 1977—his father had previously attempted to get a collection of "Silmarillion" material published in 1937 before writing The Lord of the Rings.
Unfinished Tales and The History of Middle-earth
In 1980 Christopher Tolkien published a collection of more fragmentary material, under the title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth. In subsequent years (1983–1996) he published a large amount of the remaining unpublished materials, together with notes and extensive commentary, in a series of twelve volumes called The History of Middle-earth. They contain unfinished, abandoned, alternative, and outright contradictory accounts, since they were always a work in progress for Tolkien and he only rarely settled on a definitive version for any of the stories. There is not complete consistency between The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit, the two most closely related works, because Tolkien never fully integrated all their traditions into each other. He commented in 1965, while editing The Hobbit for a third edition, that he would have preferred to completely rewrite the book because of the style of its prose.
The Children of Húrin
More recently, in 2007, the collection was completed with the publication of The Children of Húrin by HarperCollins (in the UK and Canada) and Houghton Mifflin (in the US). The novel tells the story of Túrin Turambar and his sister Nienor, children of Húrin Thalion. The material was compiled by Christopher Tolkien from The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales, The History of Middle-earth, and unpublished manuscripts.
The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún
In February 2009, Publishers Weekly announced that Houghton Mifflin Harcourt had acquired the American rights to Tolkien's unpublished work The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún. The work, which was released worldwide on 5 May 2009 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt and HarperCollins, retells the legend of Sigurd and the fall of the Niflungs from Germanic mythology. It is a narrative poem composed in alliterative verse and is modeled after the Old Norse poetry of the Elder Edda. Christopher Tolkien supplied copious notes and commentary upon his father's work.
According to Christopher Tolkien, it is no longer possible to trace the exact date of the work's composition. On the basis of circumstantial evidence, he suggests that it dates from sometime during the 1930s. In his foreword he wrote, "He scarely ever (to my knowledge) referred to them. For my part, I cannot recall any conversation with him on the subject until very near the end of his life, when he spoke of them to me, and tried unsuccessfully to find them." In a 1967 letter to W. H. Auden, Tolkien wrote, "Thank you for your wonderful effort in translating and reorganising The Song of the Sibyl. In return again I hope to send you, if I can lay my hands on it (I hope it isn't lost), a thing I did many years ago when trying to learn the art of writing alliterative poetry: an attempt to unify the lays about the Völsungs from the Elder Edda, written in the old eight-line fornyrðislag stanza."
One of Tolkien's least-known short works, published in 1982, it tells the story of Mr. Bliss and his first ride in his new motor-car. Many adventures follow: encounters with bears, angry neighbours, irate shopkeepers, and assorted collisions. The story was inspired by Tolkien's own vehicular mishaps with his first car, purchased in 1932. The bears were based on toy bears owned by Tolkien's sons. Tolkien was both author and illustrator of the book. He submitted it to his publishers as a balm to readers who were hungry for more from him after the success of The Hobbit. The lavish ink and coloured-pencil illustrations would have made production costs prohibitively expensive. Tolkien agreed to redraw the pictures in a simpler style, but then found he didn't have time to do so. The book was published in 1982 as a facsimile of Tolkien's difficult-to-read illustrated manuscript, with a typeset transcription on each facing page.
The Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Marquette University's John P. Raynor, S.J., Library in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, preserves many of Tolkien's manuscripts; other original material is in Oxford University's Bodleian Library. Marquette University has the manuscripts and proofs of The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, and other works, including Farmer Giles of Ham, while the Bodleian Library holds the papers containing Tolkien's Silmarillion mythology and his academic work.
Languages and philology
Both Tolkien's academic career and his literary production are inseparable from his love of language and philology. He specialized in English philology at university and in 1915 graduated with Old Norse as special subject. He worked for the Oxford English Dictionary from 1918 and is credited with having worked on a number of words starting with the letter W, including walrus, over which he struggled mightily. In 1920, he became Reader in English Language at the University of Leeds, where he claimed credit for raising the number of students of linguistics from five to twenty. He gave courses in Old English heroic verse, history of English, various Old English and Middle English texts, Old and Middle English philology, introductory Germanic philology, Gothic, Old Icelandic, and Medieval Welsh. When in 1925, aged thirty-three, Tolkien applied for the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at the Pembroke College, he boasted that his students of Germanic philology in Leeds had even formed a "Viking Club". He also had a certain, if imperfect, knowledge of Finnish.
Privately, Tolkien was attracted to "things of racial and linguistic significance", and in his 1955 lecture English and Welsh, which is crucial to his understanding of race and language, he entertained notions of "inherent linguistic predilections", which he termed the "native language" as opposed to the "cradle-tongue" which a person first learns to speak. He considered the West Midlands dialect of Middle English to be his own "native language", and, as he wrote to W. H. Auden in 1955, "I am a West-midlander by blood (and took to early west-midland Middle English as a known tongue as soon as I set eyes on it)."
Tolkien learned Latin, French, and German from his mother, and while at school he learned Middle English, Old English, Finnish, Gothic, Greek, Italian, Old Norse, Spanish, Welsh, and Medieval Welsh. He was also familiar with Danish, Dutch, Lombardic, Norwegian, Icelandic, Russian, Swedish, Middle Dutch, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Old High German, Old SlavonicTemplate:Dn, and Lithuanian, revealing his deep linguistic knowledge, above all of the Germanic languages.
See also: Languages of Middle-earth
Parallel to Tolkien's professional work as a philologist, and sometimes overshadowing this work, to the effect that his academic output remained rather thin, was his affection for the construction of artificial languages. The best developed of these are Quenya and Sindarin, the etymological connection between which formed the core of much of Tolkien's legendarium. Language and grammar for Tolkien was a matter of aesthetics and euphony, and Quenya in particular was designed from "phonaesthetic" considerations; it was intended as an "Elvenlatin", and was phonologically based on Latin, with ingredients from Finnish, Welsh, English, and Greek. A notable addition came in late 1945 with Adûnaic or Númenórean, a language of a "faintly Semitic flavour", connected with Tolkien's Atlantis legend, which by The Notion Club Papers ties directly into his ideas about inability of language to be inherited, and via the "Second Age" and the story of Eärendil was grounded in the legendarium, thereby providing a link of Tolkien's twentieth-century "real primary world" with the legendary past of his Middle-earth.
Tolkien considered languages inseparable from the mythology associated with them, and he consequently took a dim view of auxiliary languages: in 1930 a congress of Esperantists were told as much by him, in his lecture A Secret Vice, "Your language construction will breed a mythology", but by 1956 he had concluded that "Volapük, Esperanto, Ido, Novial, &c, &c, are dead, far deader than ancient unused languages, because their authors never invented any Esperanto legends".
The popularity of Tolkien's books has had a small but lasting effect on the use of language in fantasy literature in particular, and even on mainstream dictionaries, which today commonly accept Tolkien's idiosyncratic spellings dwarves and dwarvish (alongside dwarfs and dwarfish), which had been little used since the mid-1800s and earlier. (In fact, according to Tolkien, had the Old English plural survived, it would have been dwerrows.) He also coined the term eucatastrophe, though it remains mainly used in connection with his own work.
- Main article: Works inspired by J. R. R. Tolkien
In a 1951 letter to Milton Waldman, Tolkien wrote about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which "[t]he cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama". The hands and minds of many artists have indeed been inspired by Tolkien's legends. Personally known to him were Pauline Baynes (Tolkien's favourite illustrator of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Farmer Giles of Ham) and Donald Swann (who set the music to The Road Goes Ever On). Queen Margrethe II of Denmark created illustrations to The Lord of the Rings in the early 1970s. She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity they bore in style to his own drawings.
However, Tolkien was not fond of all the artistic representation of his works that were produced in his lifetime, and was sometimes harshly disapproving. In 1946, he rejected suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of The Hobbit as "too Disnified ... Bilbo with a dribbling nose, and Gandalf as a figure of vulgar fun rather than the Odinic wanderer that I think of".
Tolkien was sceptical of the emerging Tolkien fandom in the United States, and in 1954 he returned proposals for the dust jackets of the American edition of The Lord of the Rings:
Thank you for sending me the projected 'blurbs', which I return. The Americans are not as a rule at all amenable to criticism or correction; but I think their effort is so poor that I feel constrained to make some effort to improve it.
He had dismissed dramatic representations of fantasy in his essay "On Fairy-Stories", first presented in 1939:
In human art Fantasy is a thing best left to words, to true literature. [...] Drama is naturally hostile to Fantasy. Fantasy, even of the simplest kind, hardly ever succeeds in Drama, when that is presented as it should be, visibly and audibly acted.
On receiving a screenplay for a proposed movie adaptation of The Lord of the Rings by Morton Grady Zimmerman, Tolkien wrote:
I would ask them to make an effort of imagination sufficient to understand the irritation (and on occasion the resentment) of an author, who finds, increasingly as he proceeds, his work treated as it would seem carelessly in general, in places recklessly, and with no evident signs of any appreciation of what it is all about.
Tolkien went on to criticize the script scene by scene ("yet one more scene of screams and rather meaningless slashings"). He was not implacably opposed to the idea of a dramatic adaptation, however, and sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in 1968. United Artists never made a film, although director John Boorman was planning a live-action film in the early 1970s. In 1976 the rights were sold to Tolkien Enterprises, a division of the Saul Zaentz Company, and the first movie adaptation of The Lord of the Rings appeared in 1978, an animated rotoscoping film directed by Ralph Bakshi with screenplay by the fantasy writer Peter S. Beagle. It covered only the first half of the story of The Lord of the Rings. In 1977 an animated TV production of The Hobbit was made by Rankin-Bass, and in 1980 they produced an animated The Return of the King, which covered some of the portions of The Lord of the Rings that Bakshi was unable to complete.
From 2001 to 2003, New Line Cinema released The Lord of the Rings as a trilogy of live-action films that were filmed in New Zealand and directed by Peter Jackson. The series was successful, performing extremely well commercially and winning numerous Oscars.
There are currently plans for an upcoming two-film series based on The Hobbit (see The Hobbit films). The films are in development for release in December 2011 and December 2012. The films will be directed by Guillermo del Toro, with The Lord of the Rings film trilogy director Peter Jackson serving as executive producer and co-writer. New Line Cinema and MGM will co-finance the film, and the MGM will distribute the films outside North America.
Posthumously named after Tolkien are the Tolkien Road in Eastbourne, East Sussex, and the asteroid 2675 Tolkien discovered in 1982. Tolkien Way in Stoke-on-Trent is named after Tolkien's eldest son, Fr. John Francis Tolkien, who was the priest in charge at the nearby Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Angels and St. Peter in Chains. There is also a professorship in Tolkien's name at Oxford, the J.R.R. Tolkien Professor of English Literature and Language.
In the Dutch town of Geldrop, near Eindhoven, the streets of an entire new neighbourhood are named after Tolkien himself ("Laan van Tolkien") and some of the best-known characters from his books.
In the Hall Green and Moseley areas of Birmingham there are a number of parks and walkways dedicated to J. R. R. Tolkien—most notably, the Millstream Way and Moseley Bog. Collectively the parks are known as the Shire Country Parks. Every year at Sarehole Mill the Tolkien Weekend is held in memory of the author; the fiftieth anniversary of the release of The Lord of the Rings was commemorated in 2005.
In the Silicon Valley towns of Saratoga and San Jose in California, there are two housing developments with street names drawn from Tolkien's works. At the University of California at Davis are "Baggins End Innovative Housing", an on-campus commune consisting of 14 polyurethane-insulated fiberglass domes, and an off-campus development known as "Village Homes", a planned community designed to be ecologically sustainable and whose street names are taken from The Lord of the Rings.
There are five blue plaques that commemorate places associated with Tolkien: one in Oxford, and four in Birmingham. One of the Birmingham plaques commemorates the inspiration provided by Sarehole Mill, near which he lived between the ages of four and eight, while two others mark childhood homes up to the time he left to attend Oxford University. The third one marks a hotel he stayed at while on leave from World War I. The Oxford plaque commemorates the residence where Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and most of The Lord of the Rings.
|Address||Commemoration||Date unveiled|| Issued by|
| Sarehole Mill|
Hall Green, Birmingham
| "Inspired" 1896–1900</br>(i. e. lived nearby)|| 15 August 2002|| Birmingham Civic Society and|
The Tolkien Society
| 1 Duchess Place|
| Lived near here 1902–1910|| Unknown|| Birmingham Civic Society|
| 4 Highfield Road|
| Lived here 1910–1911|| Unknown|| Birmingham Civic Society and|
The Tolkien Society
| Plough and Harrow|
Hagley Road, Birmingham
| Stayed here June 1916|| June 1997|| The Tolkien Society|
| 20 Northmoor Road|
| Lived here 1930–1947|| 3 December 2002|| Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board|
Another two plaques marking buildings associated with Tolkien are found in Oxford and Harrogate. The Harrogate plaque commemorates a residence where Tolkien convalesced from trench fever in 1917, while the Oxford plaque marks his home from 1953–1968 at 76 Sandfield Road, Headington.
- Main article: Bibliography of J. R. R. Tolkien
- Biography: Carpenter, Humphrey (1977). Tolkien: A Biography. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-04-928037-6.
- Letters: Carpenter, Humphrey and Tolkien, Christopher (eds.) (1981). The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-826005-3.
- ↑ Biography, pp. 111, 200, 266.
- ↑ "Middle-earth" is derived from an Anglicized form of Old Norse Miðgarðr, the land inhabited by humans in Norse mythology.
- ↑ Letters, nos. 131, 153, 154, 163.
- ↑ de Camp, L. Sprague (1976). Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy. Arkham House. ISBN 0-87054-076-9. The author emphasizes the impact not only of Tolkien but also of William Morris, George MacDonald, Robert E. Howard, and E. R. Eddison.
- ↑ Mitchell, Christopher. "J. R. R. Tolkien: Father of Modern Fantasy Literature". Veritas Forum. http://www.veritas.org/media/talks/585. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- ↑ Clute, John, and Grant, John, eds. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-19869-8.
- ↑ (5 January 2008). The 50 greatest British writers since 1945. The Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
- ↑ Letters, no. 165.
- ↑ Undergraduate John Jethro Rashbold, and "old Professor Rashbold at Pembroke"; Template:ME-ref; Letters, no. 165.
- ↑ Georg Gerullis: Die altpreußischen Ortsnamen, o.V., Berlin/Leipzig 1922, S. 184.
- ↑ Max Mechow: Deutsche Familiennamen prussischer Herkunft, Tolkemita, Dieburg 1994, S. 99.
- ↑ Old Lamb House, Bull Street, Archives and Heritage Service, Birmingham City Council. Updated 12 January 2009. Retrieved on 27 April 2009.
- ↑ Biography, p. 14.
- ↑ Biography, p. 13. Both the spider incident and the visit to a kraal are covered here.
- ↑ Biography, p. 24.
- ↑ Biography, Ch I, "Bloemfontein". At 9 Ashfield Road, King's Heath.
- ↑ Biography, p. 27.
- ↑ Biography, p. 113.
- ↑ Biography, p. 29.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Doughan, David (2002). "JRR Tolkien Biography". Life of Tolkien. http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/biography.html. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Biography, p. 22.
- ↑ Biography, p. 30.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Letters, no. 306.
- ↑ Biography, p. 31.
- ↑ Biography, p. 39.
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Birmingham Heritage Forum. Retrieved on 27 April 2009.
- ↑ J. R. R. Tolkien, Archives and Heritage Service, Birmingham City Council. Updated 7 January 2009. Retrieved on 28 April 2009.
- ↑ Bracken, Pamela (2006-03-04). "Echoes of Fellowship: The PRB and the Inklings". Conference paper, C. S. Lewis & the Inklings. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:7CuM502G7bIJ:www.jbu.edu/academics/hss/english/cslewis/papers/Pam%2520Bracken%2520-%2520Lewis%2520Conference%2520Paper%2520Revision.doc+burne-jones+tolkien&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=uk. Retrieved 2009-03-09.
- ↑ Biography, pp. 53–54.
- ↑ dab, Roots of Romance (zoomed in on 1911 trail), hosted on Google Maps. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- ↑ Biography, p. 40.
- ↑ Doughan, David (2002). "War, Lost Tales And Academia". J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/biography.html#2. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Biography, p. 43.
- ↑ Biography, pp. 67–69.
- ↑ Biography, p. 73.
- ↑ Biography, p. 86.
- ↑ Biography, p. 85.
- ↑ Tolkien and the Great War, page 94.
- ↑ Garth, John. Tolkien and the Great War, Boston, Houghton Mifflin 2003, pp. 89, 138, 147.
- ↑ Quoted in John Garth, Tolkien and the Great War, p. 138.
- ↑ John Garth, Tolkien and the Great War, pages 94-95.
- ↑ Quoted in John Garth, Tolkien and the Great War, p. 200.
- ↑ Biography, p. 93.
- ↑ The Lord of the Rings. Preface to the Second Edition.
- ↑ Garth, John. Tolkien and the Great War, Boston, Houghton Mifflin 2003, pp. 207 et seq.
- ↑ Tolkien's Webley .455 service revolver was put on display in 2006 as part of a Battle of the Somme exhibition in the Imperial War Museum, London. (See "Personal Stories: John Ronald Reuel Tolkien". Battle of the Somme. Imperial War Museum. http://www.iwm.org.uk/server/show/nav.00o00200h. Retrieved 2009-04-28. ) Several of his service records, mostly dealing with his health problems, can be seen at the National Archives. ("Officer's service record: J R R Tolkien". First World War. National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/people/tolkien.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-28. )
- ↑ Following rural English usage, Tolkien used the name "hemlock" for various plants with white flowers in umbels, resembling hemlock (Conium maculatum); the flowers among which Edith danced were more probably cow parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris) or wild carrot (Daucus carota). See John Garth, Tolkien and the Great War (Harper Collins/Houghton Mifflin 2003), and Peter Gilliver, Jeremy Marshall, & Edmund Weiner, The Ring of Words (OUP 2006).
- ↑ Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 340, To Christopher Tolkien.
- ↑ Cater, Bill (12 April 2001). "We talked of love, death, and fairy tales". UK Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2001/12/04/batolk04.xml. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- ↑ Gilliver, Peter (2006). The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the OED. OUP.
- ↑ See The Name Nodens (1932) in the bibliographical listing. For the etymology, see Nodens#Etymology.
- ↑ Biography, p. 143.
- ↑ Ramey, Bill (30 March 1998). "The Unity of Beowulf: Tolkien and the Critics". Wisdom's Children. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/billramey/beowulf.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- ↑ Tolkien: Finn and Hengest. Chiefly, p.4 in the Introduction by Alan Bliss.
- ↑ Tolkien: Finn and Hengest, the discussion of Eotena, passim.
- ↑ Kennedy, Michael (2001). "Tolkien and Beowulf – Warriors of Middle-earth". Amon Hen. http://www.triode.net.au/~dragon/tilkal/issue1/beowulf.html. Retrieved 2006-05-18.
- ↑ Carpenter, Biography, page 133.
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 58.4 Letters, no. 35 (see also editorial note).
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 59.4 Hammond, Wayne; Scull, Christina (2006). The J. R. R. Tolkien Companion and Guide. 2. HarperCollins. pp. 224, 226, 232. ISBN 978-0618391134.
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 "JRR Tolkien trained as British spy". Daily Telegraph. 16 September 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6197169/JRR-Tolkien-trained-as-British-spy.html. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
- ↑ Rogerson, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible, 2001.
- ↑ J. R. R. Tolkien, The Father Christmas Letters (1976)
- ↑ Biography, pp. 119–20.
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 64.2 Letters, no. 83.
- ↑ Biography, p. 151.
- ↑ Biography, p. 237.
- ↑ Carpenter, Humphrey. The Inklings, Unwin Paperbacks, 1981, p. 242.
- ↑ Biography, p. 241.
- ↑ The relationship between Tolkien, Lewis, and Williams, fictionalized, is at the centre of James A. Owens' Here, There be Dragons (2007).
- ↑ Carpenter, Biography, page 133.
- ↑ Letters, no. 327.
- ↑ Meras, Phyllis (15 January 1967). ""Go, Go, Gandalf"". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/02/11/specials/tolkien-gandalf.html. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Letters, no. 336.
- ↑ Letters, no. 332.
- ↑ Humphrey Carpenter, "Tolkien: The Authorized Biography," page 158.
- ↑ Template:London Gazette
- ↑ Letters, no. 334 (editorial note).
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 "J. R. R. Tolkien Dead at 81; Wrote 'The Lord of the Rings'". New York Times. 3 September 1973. http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/02/11/specials/tolkien-obit.html. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- ↑ Letters, no. 52, to Christopher Tolkien, 29 November 1943
- ↑ Letters, nos. 64, 131, etc.
- ↑ Template:Cite video
- ↑ 82.0 82.1 Template:ME-ref
- ↑ Longenecker, Dwight. Why Tolkien said No to Narnia, Spero News, 12 November 2008. Accessed 4 April 2009.
- ↑ Pearce, Joseph (2003). Why Tolkien Says The Lord of the Rings Is Catholic, National Catholic Register, January 12–19, 2003. Accessed 1 December 2008.
- ↑ Wood, Ralph C. Biography of J. R. R. Tolkien (1892–1973). Addison, Texas; Leadership University. Updated 13 July 2002. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- ↑ Tolkien, Mythopoeia (the poem), circa 1931.
- ↑ Carpenter, Humphrey (1978). The Inklings. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0007748698. Lewis was brought up in the Church of Ireland.
- ↑ Craven, R. Kenton (2001). "Catholic Poem in Time of War: The Lord of the Rings". Catholic Education Resource Center. http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/arts/al0127.html. Retrieved 28 April 2009. Reprinted from True West. "Tolkien himself – as did Evelyn Waugh – abhorred the changes in the Mass and the prevailing Catholic mind."
- ↑ Tolkien, Simon (23 February 2003). "My Grandfather". The Mail on Sunday. http://www.simontolkien.com/jrrtolkien.html. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
- ↑ C. S. Lewis: "To the Author of Flowering Rifle", The Cherwell, 6 May 1939
- ↑ Joseph Pearce, "Unafraid of Virginia Woolf: The Friends and Enemies of Roy Campbell."
- ↑ Letters, no. 53.
- ↑ Letters, no. 230.
- ↑ Jensen, Steuard. Was Tolkien a racist? Were his works?, Tolkien Meta-FAQ, III. A. 7. Retrieved on 27 April 2009.
- ↑ J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia (2006), s.v. "Racism, Charge of", p. 557.
- ↑ John Yatt, The Guardian (2 December 2002), writes: "White men are good, 'dark' men are bad, orcs are worst of all." (Other critics such as Tom Shippey and Michael D.C. Drout disagree with such clear-cut generalizations of Tolkien's "white" and "dark" men into good and bad.) Tolkien's works have also been embraced by self-admitted racists such as the British National Party.
- ↑ Letters, no. 61, to Christopher Tolkien, 18 April 1944.
- ↑ Letters, no. 29, to Stanley Unwin, 25 July 1938.
- ↑ Letters, no. 30.
- ↑ Letters, no. 45.
- ↑ Letters, no. 294.
- ↑ Letters, no. 96.
- ↑ Letters, no. 81.
- ↑ Letters, no. 102.
- ↑ Letters, no. 1.
- ↑ Letters, no. 226.
- ↑ Anderson, Douglas A. The Annotated Hobbit, Boston, Houghton Mifflin 1988, p. 183, note 10.
- ↑ Anderson, Douglas A. The Annotated Hobbit, Boston, Houghton Mifflin 1988, pp. 6–7.
- ↑ Resnick, Henry (1967). "An Interview with Tolkien". Niekas: 37–47.
- ↑ Nelson, Dale J. (2006). "Haggard's She: Burke's Sublime in a popular romance". Mythlore (Winter–Spring). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OON/is_3-4_24/ai_n16418915/pg_1. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- ↑ Flieger, Verlyn (2005). Interrupted Music: The Making Of Tolkien's Mythology. Kent State University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0873388140. http://books.google.com/books?id=Q6zgmCf_kY4C&pg=PA150&dq=Tolkien+%22Red+Book%22+Haggard&ei=M9JSR8T4LZDgoAK-qdGuCw&sig=BxCnRRog4MZyWQlZME6hq-nE-MQ. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- ↑ Muir, Edwin (1988). The Truth of Imagination: Some Uncollected Reviews and Essays. Aberdeen University Press. p. 121. ISBN 008036392X.
- ↑ Lobdell, Jared C. (2004). The World of the Rings: Language, Religion, and Adventure in Tolkien. Open Court. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9780812695694.
- ↑ Rogers, William N., II; Underwood, Michael R. (2000). "Gagool and Gollum: Exemplars of Degeneration in King Solomon's Mines and The Hobbit". in George Clark and Daniel Timmons (eds.). J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-Earth. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 121–132. ISBN 0313308454.
- ↑ Stoddard, William H. (July 2003). "Galadriel and Ayesha: Tolkienian Inspiration?". Franson Publications. http://www.troynovant.com/Stoddard/Tolkien/Galadriel-and-Ayesha.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- ↑ Letters, p. 391, footnote, quoted in Jared C. Lobdell, The World of the Rings: Language, Religion, and Adventure in Tolkien, p. 6.
- ↑ Anderson, Douglas A. The Annotated Hobbit, Boston, Houghton Mifflin 1988, p. 150.
- ↑ Lobdell, Jared C. The World of the Rings: Language, Religion, and Adventure in Tolkien, pp. 6–7.
- ↑ As described by Christopher Tolkien in Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks Konung (Oxford University, Trinity College). B. Litt. thesis. 1953/4. [Year uncertain], The Battle of the Goths and the Huns, in: Saga-Book (University College, London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research) 14, part 3 (1955–6) 
- ↑ 120.0 120.1 Day, David (1 February 2002). Tolkien's Ring. New York: Barnes and Noble. ISBN 1-58663-527-1.
- ↑ The Two RingsTemplate:Dead link
- ↑ Spengler, The 'Ring' and the remnants of the West, Asia Times, 11 January 2003. Retrieved on 27 April 2009.
- ↑ Spengler, Tolkien's Christianity and the pagan tragedy, Asia Times, 11 January 2003. Retrieved on 27 April 2009.
- ↑ Tolkien's Ring and Der Ring des Nibelungen, Chapter 5 in Harvey, David (1995). One Ring to Rule them All. Updated 20 October 1995. Retrieved on 27 April 2009.
- ↑ Handwerk, Brian (1 March 2004). "Lord of the Rings Inspired by an Ancient Epic". National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/12/1219_tolkienroots.html. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- ↑ Fimi, Dimitra (2006). "'Mad' Elves and 'elusive beauty': some Celtic strands of Tolkien's mythology". Folklore (West Virginia University Press) 117 (2): 156–170. doi:10.1353/tks.2007.0015. ISSN 1547-3155. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2386/is_2_117/ai_n16676591. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
- ↑ Fimi, Dimitra (2007). "Tolkien's "'Celtic' type of legends": Merging Traditions". Tolkien Studies (West Virginia University Press) 4: 51–71. doi:10.1353/tks.2007.0015. ISSN 1547-3155. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/tolkien_studies/v004/4.1fimi.html. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- ↑ Letters, no. 19.
- ↑ 129.0 129.1 129.2 Letters, no. 144.
- ↑ Bofetti, Jason (November 2001). "Tolkien's Catholic Imagination". Crisis Magazine. http://www.crisismagazine.com/november2001/feature7.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- ↑ Letters, no. 142.
- ↑ Kocher, Paul H. (1972). Master of Middle-earth: The Fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 76–77. ISBN 0395140978.
- ↑ Shippey, Tom (1983). The Road to Middle-earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 140–141. ISBN 0-395-33973-1.
- ↑ Road, pp. 141–145.
- ↑ Tolkien, J. R. R. Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics, Oxford, 1963, pp. 10–11.
- ↑ Hammond, Wayne G. J.R.R. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography, London: January 1993, Saint Paul's Biographies, ISBN 1-873040-11-3, American edition ISBN 0-938768-42-5
- ↑ "1978 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1978. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- ↑ Phillip, Norman (2005). "The Prevalence of Hobbits". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/02/11/specials/tolkien-mag67.html. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Times Editorial Staff (5 June 1955). "Oxford Calling". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/02/11/specials/tolkien-oxford.html. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Seiler, Andy (16 December 2003). "'Rings' comes full circle". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/news/2003-12-12-lotr-main_x.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Cooper, Callista (5 December 2005). "Epic trilogy tops favorite film poll". ABC News Online. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200512/s1523327.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ O'Hehir, Andrew (4 June 2001). "The book of the century". Salon.com. http://www.salon.com/books/feature/2001/06/04/tolkien/. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Diver, Krysia (5 October 2004). "A lord for Germany". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/10/04/1096871805007.html. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ see The History Of Middle-Earth.
- ↑ Martinez, Michael (27 July 2002). "Middle-earth Revised, Again". Michael Martinez Tolkien Essays. http://www.merp.com/essays/MichaelMartinez/michaelmartinezsuite101essay122. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- ↑ "Publishing News Briefs: Week of 2/23.2009". Publishers Weekly. 23 February 2009. http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6639000.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- ↑ The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrun, page 5.
- ↑ Letters, no. 295.
- ↑ "J.R.R. Tolkien Collection". Department of Special Collections and University Archives, Marquette University. 4 March 2003. http://www.marquette.edu/library/collections/archives/tolkien.html. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- ↑ McDowell, Edwin (4 September 1983). "Middle-earth Revisited". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/02/11/specials/tolkien-revisited.html. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Beebe discovers unpublished C.S. Lewis manuscript, txstate.edu, University News Service, 8 July 2009
- ↑ Winchester, Simon (2003). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860702-4; and Gilliver, Peter, Jeremy Marshall and Edmund Weiner (2006). The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861069-6.
- ↑ Letters, no. 7, to the Electors of the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, University of Oxford, 27 June 1925.
- ↑ Grotta, Daniel (2001). J.R.R. Tolkien: Architect of Middle Earth. Philadelphia, Running Press. ISBN 0762409568.
- ↑ English and Welsh, O'Donnell Lecture, 1955, cited in Scull, Christina, and Hammond, Wayne G. The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Reader's Guide, London, HarperCollins 2006, p. 249.
- ↑ Letters, no. 163.
- ↑ Jeffrey, Henning (January–February, 1996). "On Tolkien: Growing up with language". Model Languages 1 (8). http://www.langmaker.com/ml0108.htm.
- ↑ Letters, no. 180.
- ↑ Letters, no. 131.
- ↑ Thygesen, Peter (Autumn, 1999). "Queen Margrethe II: Denmark's monarch for a modern age". Scandinavian Review. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3760/is_199910/ai_n8868143. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ Letters, no. 107.
- ↑ J. R. R. Tolkien, "On Fairy-Stories", in Template:ME-ref.
- ↑ Letters, no. 207.
- ↑ Canby, Vincent (15 November 1978). "Film: 'The Lord of the Rings' From Ralph Bakshi". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/02/11/specials/tolkien-lordfilm.html. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- ↑ "People of Stoke-on-Trent". http://www.thepotteries.org/people/tolkien_john.htm. Retrieved 2005-03-13.
- ↑ Schedule of Statutory Professorships in Statutes and Regulations of the University of Oxford online at http://ox.ac.uk/statutes (accessed 27 November 2007)
- ↑ Birmingham Civic Society. "Sarehole Mill". Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. http://www.birminghamnet.co.uk/galleries/features/blueplaque/sarehole.html. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Birmingham Civic Society. "Duchess Place". Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. http://www.birminghamnet.co.uk/galleries/features/blueplaque/tolkien2.html. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Birmingham Civic Society. "4 Highfield Road". Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. http://www.birminghamnet.co.uk/galleries/features/blueplaque/tolkien3.html. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Birmingham Civic Society. "Plough and Harrow". Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. http://www.birminghamnet.co.uk/galleries/features/blueplaque/tolkien.html. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board. "J. R. R. Tolkien Philologist and Author". Plaques Awarded. http://126.96.36.199/blue/jtolkien.html. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Template:Cite encyclopedia
- ↑ Stephanie Jenkins. "J. R. R. Tolkien Inscriptions". Headington.org. http://www.headington.org.uk/oxon/streets/inscriptions/headington/tolkien.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
A small selection of books about Tolkien and his works:
- Douglas A. Anderson (Editor), Michael D. C. Drout (Editor), Verlyn Flieger (Editor) (2004). Anderson, Douglas A., Michael D. C. Drout and Verlyn Flieger. ed. Tolkien Studies, An Annual Scholarly Review Vol. I. West Virginia University Press. ISBN 0-937058-87-4.
- Carpenter, Humphrey (1979). The Inklings: C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and Their Friends. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-27628-4.
- Edited by Jane Chance (2003). Chance, Jane. ed. Tolkien the Medievalist. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28944-0.
- Edited by Jane Chance (2004). Chance, Jane. ed. Tolkien and the Invention of Myth, a Reader. Louisville: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2301-1.
- Curry, Patrick (2004). Defending Middle-earth: Tolkien, Myth and Modernity. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-47885-X.
- Michael D. C. Drout, editor (2006). Drout, Michael D. C.. ed. J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. New York City: Routledge. ISBN 0-415969425..
- Duriez, Colin (2001). The Inklings Handbook: The Lives, Thought and Writings of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Their Friends. London: Azure. ISBN 1-902694-13-9.
- Duriez, Colin (2003). Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship. Mahwah, NJ: HiddenSpring. ISBN 1-58768-026-2.
- Edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter (2000). Flieger, Verlyn and Carl F. Hostetter. ed. Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on The History of Middle-earth. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30530-7. DDC 823.912. LC PR6039..
- Fonstad, Karen Wynn (1991). The Atlas of Middle-earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-126996.
- Foster, Robert (2001). The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth. Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-44976-2.
- Garth, John (2003). Tolkien and the Great War. Harper-Collins. ISBN 0-00-711953-4.
- Gilliver, Peter; Marshall, Jeremy; Weiner, Edmund (2006). The Ring of Words. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198610696.
- Glyer, Diana Pavlac (2007). The Company They Keep: C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien as Writers in Community. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-890-0.
- Grotta-Kurska, Daniel (1976). J.R.R. Tolkien: Architect of Middle Earth (A Biography). Philadelphia: Running Press. ISBN 0-7624-0956-8.
- Haber, Karen (2001). Meditations on Middle-earth: New Writing on the Worlds of J. R. R. Tolkien. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-27536-6.
- Harrington, Patrick, ed (2003). Tolkien and Politics. London, England: Third Way Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-9544788-2-7.
- Stuart Lee, Elizabeth Solopova, (2005). Lee, S. D., and E. Solopova. ed. The Keys of Middle-earth: Discovering Medieval Literature through the Fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-4671-X.
- Pearce, Joseph (1998). Tolkien: Man and Myth. London: HarperCollinsPublishers. ISBN 0-00-274018-4.
- Perry, Michael (2006). Untangling Tolkien: A Chronology and Commentary for The Lord of the Rings. Seattle: Inkling Books. ISBN 1-58742-019-8.
- Shippey, Tom (2000). J. R. R. Tolkien – Author of the Century. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-12764-X.
- Tom, Shippey (2003). The Road to Middle-earth. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-25760-8.
- Ready, William (1968). Understanding Tolkien and the Lord of the Rings. New York: Paperback Library.
- Strachey, Barbara (1981). Journeys of Frodo: an Atlas of The Lord of the Rings. London, Boston: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-912016-6.
- Tolkien, John & Priscilla (1992). The Tolkien Family Album. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-261-10239-7.
- Tyler, J.E.A. (1976). The Tolkien Companion. New York: Gramercy. ISBN 0-517-14648-7.
- White, Michael (2003). Tolkien: A Biography. New American Library. ISBN 0-451-21242-8.
- The Tolkien Estate Website
- HarperCollins Tolkien Website
- Tolkien Biography (The Tolkien Society)
- Tolkien Archives at the Raynor Library, Marquette University
- The Tolkien Library
- The Tolkien Collector's Guide
- Works by or about J. R. R. Tolkien in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- J. R. R. Tolkien at the Internet Book List
- J.R.R. Tolkien: An Imaginative Life Three illustrated on-line lectures examining the life and work of Tolkien (at The Gnosis Archive)