|Calvin and Hobbes|
Current status / schedule
November 18, 1985 (1st)
December 31, 1995 (3,160th)
Universal Press Syndicate
Andrews McMeel Publishing
Humor, family life, politics, satire
Calvin and Hobbes is a syndicated daily comic strip written and illustrated by American cartoonist Bill Watterson, and syndicated from November 18, 1985 to December 31, 1995. It follows the humorous antics of Calvin, a highly precocious and adventurous six-year-old boy, and Hobbes, his sardonic stuffed tiger. The pair are named after John Calvin, a 16th-century French Reformation theologian, and Thomas Hobbes, a 17th-century English political philosopher. At its height, Calvin and Hobbes was featured in over 2,400 newspapers worldwide; as of January 2010, reruns of the strip still appear in more than 50 countries (though not in North America). Nearly 45 million copies of the 18 Calvin and Hobbes books have been sold.
Set in the contemporary Midwestern United States in an unspecified suburban community, the broad themes of the strip deal with Calvin's flights of fantasy and his friendship with Hobbes, his misadventures, his unique views on a diverse range of political and cultural issues and his relationships with the people in his life, especially his parents. The dual nature of Hobbes is also a recurring motif: Calvin sees Hobbes as a live anthropomorphic tiger, while other characters see him as a stuffed toy. Though the series does not mention specific political figures or current events, it does explore broad issues like environmentalism, public education, and the flaws of opinion polls.
The United States Postal Service announced on December 30, 2009 that a Calvin & Hobbes postage stamp will be issued in July 2010.
|“||I thought it was perhaps too 'adult,' too literate. When my then-8-year-old son remarked, "This is the Doonesbury for kids!" I suspected we had something unusual on our hands.||”|
Calvin and Hobbes was conceived when Bill Watterson, having worked in an advertising job he detested, began devoting his spare time to cartooning, his true love. He explored various strip ideas but all were rejected by the syndicates. United Feature Syndicate finally responded positively to one strip, which featured a side character (the main character's little brother) who had a stuffed tiger. Told that these characters were the strongest, Watterson began a new strip centered on them. But United Feature rejected the new strip, and Watterson endured a few more rejections before Universal Press Syndicate decided to take it.
The first strip was published on November 18, 1985, and the series quickly became a hit. Within a year of syndication, the strip was published in roughly 250 newspapers. Before long the strip was in wide circulation outside the United States. By April 1, 1987, Watterson and his work were featured in an article by The Los Angeles Times. Calvin and Hobbes twice earned Watterson the Reuben Award from the National Cartoonists Society in the Outstanding Cartoonist of the Year category, first in 1986 and again in 1988. He was nominated again in 1992. The Society awarded him the Humor Comic Strip Award for 1988.
Watterson took two extended breaks from writing new strips, from May 1991 to February 1992, and from April through December 1994. In 1995, Watterson sent a letter via his syndicate to all editors whose newspapers carried his strip:
I will be stopping Calvin and Hobbes at the end of the year. This was not a recent or an easy decision, and I leave with some sadness. My interests have shifted however, and I believe I've done what I can do within the constraints of daily deadlines and small panels. I am eager to work at a more thoughtful pace, with fewer artistic compromises. I have not yet decided on future projects, but my relationship with Universal Press Syndicate will continue.
That so many newspapers would carry Calvin and Hobbes is an honor I'll long be proud of, and I've greatly appreciated your support and indulgence over the last decade. Drawing this comic strip has been a privilege and a pleasure, and I thank you for giving me the opportunity.
The 3,160th and final strip ran on Sunday, December 31, 1995. It depicted Calvin and Hobbes outside in freshly-fallen snow, reveling in the wonder and excitement of the winter scene. "It's a magical world, Hobbes, ol' buddy... Let's go exploring!" Calvin exclaims as they zoom off on their sled, leaving, according to one critic ten years later, "a hole in the comics page that no strip has been able to fill."
Syndication and formatting
From the outset, Watterson found himself at odds with the syndicate, which urged him to begin merchandising the characters and touring the country to promote the first collections of comic strips. Watterson refused. To him, the integrity of the strip and its artist would be undermined by commercialization, which he saw as a major negative influence in the world of cartoon art.
Watterson also grew increasingly frustrated by the gradual shrinking of available space for comics in the newspapers. He lamented that without space for anything more than simple dialogue or spare artwork, comics as an art form were becoming dilute, bland, and unoriginal. Watterson strove for a full-page version of his strip, in contrast to the few cells allocated for most strips. He longed for the artistic freedom allotted to classic strips such as Little Nemo and Krazy Kat, and he gave a sample of what could be accomplished with such liberty in the opening pages of the Sunday strip compilation, The Calvin and Hobbes Lazy Sunday Book.
During Watterson's first sabbatical from the strip, Universal Press Syndicate continued to charge newspapers full price to re-run old Calvin and Hobbes strips. Few editors approved of the move, but the strip was so popular that they had little choice but to continue to run it for fear that competing newspapers might pick it up and draw its fans away.
Upon Watterson's return, Universal Press announced that Watterson had decided to sell his Sunday strip as an unbreakable half of a newspaper or tabloid page. Many editors and even a few cartoonists criticized him for what they perceived as arrogance and an unwillingness to abide by the normal practices of the cartoon business. Watterson had negotiated the deal to allow himself more creative freedom in the Sunday comics. Watterson's explanation for the switch:
I took a sabbatical after resolving a long and emotionally draining fight to prevent Calvin and Hobbes from being merchandised. Looking for a way to rekindle my enthusiasm for the duration of a new contract term, I proposed a redesigned Sunday format that would permit more panel flexibility. To my surprise and delight, Universal responded with an offer to market the strip as an unbreakable half page (more space than I'd dared to ask for), despite the expected resistance of editors.
To this day, my syndicate assures me that some editors liked the new format, appreciated the difference, and were happy to run the larger strip, but I think it's fair to say that this was not the most common reaction. The syndicate had warned me to prepare for numerous cancellations of the Sunday feature, but after a few weeks of dealing with howling, purple-faced editors, the syndicate suggested that papers could reduce the strip to the size tabloid newspapers used for their smaller sheets of paper. ... I focused on the bright side: I had complete freedom of design and there were virtually no cancellations.
For all the yelling and screaming by outraged editors, I remain convinced that the larger Sunday strip gave newspapers a better product and made the comics section more fun for readers. Comics are a visual medium. A strip with a lot of drawing can be exciting and add some variety. Proud as I am that I was able to draw a larger strip, I don't expect to see it happen again any time soon. In the newspaper business, space is money, and I suspect most editors would still say that the difference is not worth the cost. Sadly, the situation is a vicious circle: because there's no room for better artwork, the comics are simply drawn; because they're simply drawn, why should they have more room?
If you look at the old cartoons by Tex Avery and Chuck Jones, you'll see that there are a lot of things single drawings just can't do. Animators can get away with incredible distortion and exaggeration... because the animator can control the length of time you see something. The bizarre exaggeration barely has time to register, and the viewer doesn't ponder the incredible license he's witnessed.
In a comic strip, you just show the highlights of action – you can't show the buildup and release... or at least not without slowing down the pace of everything to the point where it's like looking at individual frames of a movie, in which case you've probably lost the effect you were trying to achieve. In a comic strip, you can suggest motion and time, but it's very crude compared to what an animator can do. I have a real awe for good animation.
After this he was asked if it was "a bit scary to think of hearing Calvin's voice". He responded that it was "very scary", and that although he loved the visual possibilities of animation, the thought of casting voice actors to play his characters was uncomfortable. He was also unsure whether he wanted to work with an animation team, as he had done all previous work by himself. Ultimately, Calvin and Hobbes was never made into an animated series. Watterson later stated in the Calvin and Hobbes Tenth Anniversary Book that he liked the fact that his strip was a "low-tech, one-man operation", and took great pride in the fact that he drew every line and wrote every word on his own.
Bill Watterson insists that cartoon strips should stand on their own as an art form and has resisted the use of Calvin and Hobbes in merchandising of any sort. Watterson explained in a 2005 press release:
Actually, I wasn't against all merchandising when I started the strip, but each product I considered seemed to violate the spirit of the strip, contradict its message, and take me away from the work I loved. If my syndicate had let it go at that, the decision would have taken maybe 30 seconds of my life.
Almost no legitimate Calvin and Hobbes merchandise exists outside of the book collections. Exceptions include two 16-month calendars (1988–1989 and 1989–1990), the textbook Teaching with Calvin and Hobbes, the textbook The Fallacy Detective, and one T-shirt for a traveling art exhibit on comics.
However, the strip's immense popularity has led to the appearance of various counterfeit items such as window decals and T-shirts that often feature crude humor, binge drinking and other themes that are not found in Watterson's work. After threat of a lawsuit alleging infringement of copyright and trademark, some sticker makers replaced Calvin with a different boy, while other makers made no changes. Watterson wryly commented, "I clearly miscalculated how popular it would be to show Calvin urinating on a Ford logo."
Style and influences
Precedents to Calvin's fantasy world can be found in Crockett Johnson's Barnaby, Charles M. Schulz's Peanuts, Percy Crosby's Skippy, Berkeley Breathed's Bloom County, and George Herriman's Krazy Kat, while Watterson's use of comics as sociopolitical commentary reaches back to Walt Kelly's Pogo and Quino's Mafalda. Schulz and Kelly particularly influenced Watterson's outlook on comics during his formative years.
In initial strips the drawings have a flatter, Peanuts-like look; in later strips, the drawings show more depth. Notable elements of Watterson's artistic style are his characters' diverse and often exaggerated expressions (particularly those of Calvin), elaborate and bizarre backgrounds for Calvin's flights of imagination, expressions of motion, and frequent visual jokes and metaphors. In the later years of the strip, with more space available for his use, Watterson experimented more freely with different panel layouts, art styles, stories without dialogue, and greater use of whitespace. He also made a point of not showing certain things explicitly: the "Noodle Incident" and the children's book Hamster Huey and the Gooey Kablooie were left to the reader's imagination, where Watterson was sure they would be "more outrageous" than he could portray.
Watterson's technique started with minimalist pencil sketches drawn with a light pencil (though the larger Sunday strips often required more elaborate work); he then would use a small sable brush and India ink on the Strathmore bristol board to complete most of the remaining drawing. He lettered dialogue with a Rapidograph fountain pen, and he used a crowquill pen for odds and ends. He used Liquid Paper to correct mistakes. He was careful in his use of color, often spending a great deal of time in choosing the right colors to employ for the weekly Sunday strip. When Calvin and Hobbes started there were 64 colors available for the Sunday strips. For the later Sunday strips Watterson had 125 colors as well as the ability to fade the colors into each other.
Art and academia
Watterson used the strip to poke fun at the art world, principally through Calvin's unconventional creations of snowmen but also through other expressions of childhood art. When Miss Wormwood complains that he is wasting class time drawing impossible things (a Stegosaurus in a rocket ship, for example), Calvin proclaims himself "on the cutting edge of the avant-garde." He begins exploring the medium of snow when a warm day melts his snowman. His next sculpture "speaks to the horror of our own mortality, inviting the viewer to contemplate the evanescence of life." In further strips, Calvin's creative instincts diversify to include sidewalk drawings (or as he terms them, examples of "suburban postmodernism").
Watterson also lampooned the academic world. In one example, Calvin writes a "revisionist autobiography," recruiting Hobbes to take pictures of him doing stereotypical kid activities like playing sports in order to make him seem more well-adjusted. In another strip, he carefully crafts an "artist's statement," claiming that such essays convey more messages than artworks themselves ever do (Hobbes blandly notes "You misspelled Weltanschauung"). He indulges in what Watterson calls "pop psychobabble" to justify his destructive rampages and shift blame to his parents, citing "toxic codependency." In one instance, he pens a book report based on the theory that the purpose of academic writing is to "inflate weak ideas, obscure poor reasoning, and inhibit clarity," titled The Dynamics of Interbeing and Monological Imperatives in Dick and Jane: A Study in Psychic Transrelational Gender Modes. Displaying his creation to Hobbes, he remarks, "Academia, here I come!" Watterson explains that he adapted this jargon (and similar examples from several other strips) from an actual book of art criticism.
Overall, Watterson's satirical essays serve to attack both sides, criticizing both the commercial mainstream and the artists who are supposed to be "outside" it. Not long after he began drawing his "Dinosaurs in Rocket Ships" series, Calvin tells Hobbes:
The hard part for us avant-garde post-modern artists is deciding whether or not to embrace commercialism. Do we allow our work to be hyped and exploited by a market that's simply hungry for the next new thing? Do we participate in a system that turns high art into low art so it's better suited for mass consumption?
Of course, when an artist goes commercial, he makes a mockery of his status as an outsider and free thinker. He buys into the crass and shallow values art should transcend. He trades the integrity of his art for riches and fame.
Oh, what the heck. I'll do it.
The strip for Sunday, June 21, 1992 criticized the naming of the Big Bang as unevocative of the wonders behind it. The strip coined "Horrendous Space Kablooie," an alternative which has achieved some popularity among the scientific community, particularly in informal discussion and often shortened to "the HSK." The term has also been referenced in newspapers, books, and university courses.
With rare exception, the strip avoided reference to actual people or events. Watterson lampoons public decadence and apathy, commercialism, and the pandering nature of the mass media.
In one instance, Calvin tells Hobbes about a science fiction story he has read in which machines turn humans into zombie slaves. Hobbes comments about the irony of machines controlling people instead of the other way around; Calvin then exclaims, "I'll say. Hey! What time is it?? My TV show is on!" and sprints back inside to watch it. Another strip depicted Calvin's science fiction story about an extraterrestrial spaceship sucking up Earth's oceans and air. To the cries of the suffocating victims, the aliens reply that this is preferable to the loss of their jobs. Calvin is concerned that his story is too far-fetched, to which Hobbes responds "Not enough, actually".
- Main article: Calvin (Calvin and Hobbes)
Named after the 16th-century theologian, Calvin is an impulsive, sometimes overly creative, imaginative, energetic, curious, intelligent, often selfish, rude, and usually bad-tempered six-year-old, whose last name is never mentioned in the strip. Despite his low grades, Calvin has a larger vocabulary than many adults and an emerging philosophical mind:
Calvin: "Dad, are you vicariously living through me in the hope that my accomplishments will validate your mediocre life and in some way compensate for all of the opportunities you botched?"
Father: "If I were, you can bet I'd be re-evaluating my strategy."
Calvin, later to his mother: "Mom, Dad keeps insulting me."
He commonly wears his distinctive red-and-black striped shirt, black pants, and white-and-magenta sneakers. He is also an enthusiastic reader of comic books and has a tendency to order items marketed in comic books or on boxes of his favorite cereal, Chocolate Frosted Sugar Bombs. Watterson described Calvin:
Calvin is pretty easy to do because he is outgoing and rambunctious and there's not much of a filter between his brain and his mouth. I guess he's a little too intelligent for his age. The thing that I really enjoy about him is that he has no sense of restraint, he doesn't have the experience yet to know the things that you shouldn't do.
- Main article: Hobbes (Calvin and Hobbes)
From everyone else's point of view, Hobbes is Calvin's stuffed tiger. From Calvin's point of view Hobbes is an anthropomorphic tiger, much larger than Calvin and full of independent attitudes and ideas. But when the perspective shifts to any other character, readers again see merely a stuffed animal, usually seated at an off-kilter angle and blankly staring into space. Watterson explains:
"When Hobbes is a stuffed toy in one panel and alive in the next, I'm juxtaposing the 'grown-up' version of reality with Calvin's version, and inviting the reader to decide which is truer."
Hobbes' true nature is made more ambiguous by episodes that seem to attribute real-life consequences to Hobbes' actions. One example is his habit of pouncing on Calvin the moment he arrives home from school, an act which always leaves Calvin with bruises and scrapes that are evident to other characters. In another incident among many, Hobbes manages to tie Calvin to a chair in such a way that Calvin's father is unable to understand how he could have done it himself.
Hobbes is named after the 17th-century philosopher Thomas Hobbes, who had what Watterson described as "a dim view of human nature." Hobbes (the tiger) is much more rational and aware of consequences than Calvin, but seldom interferes with Calvin's troublemaking beyond a few oblique warnings. Hobbes is sarcastic when Calvin is being hypocritical about things he dislikes.
Although the debut strip clearly showed Calvin capturing Hobbes by means of a snare (with a tuna sandwich as the bait), a later comic (August 1, 1989) seems to imply that Hobbes is, in fact, older than Calvin, and has been around his whole life, quoting:
Calvin: "The whole first half of my life is a complete blank! What on earth did I know that someone wanted me to forget?"
Hobbes: "I seem to recall you spent most of the time burping up."
Watterson eventually decided that it was not important to establish how Calvin and Hobbes met.
Calvin's mother and father are mostly typical American middle-class parents. Like many other characters in the strip, their relatively down-to-earth and sensible attitudes serve primarily as a foil for Calvin's outlandish behavior.
At the beginning of the strip Watterson says some fans were angered by the way Calvin's parents thought of Calvin (his father remarked that he would have preferred a dog instead). They are not above some outrageousness of their own. Once, when Calvin asked for a cigarette, his mother provided him with one to teach him a lesson, and his father often tells him outrageous lies when asked a straight question, though Calvin often believes them:
Calvin: Dad, were there dinosaurs when you were a kid?
Dad: Oh, sure, your grandfather and I used to put on our leopard skins and hunt brontosaurus for all the clan rituals.
Other "explanations" from Calvin's father include that ice floats in order to get closer to the sun, that the world literally was in black and white like in old photographs until the mid-1930s, and that light bulbs work by magic. Calvin replied that they weren't magic, to which Calvin's father retorted, "Fine, don't believe your own father who has been around a lot longer than you." This results with Calvin's mom remarking, "I think Calvin's grades are bad enough already, don't you?"
Watterson defends what Calvin's parents do, remarking that in the case of parenting a kid like Calvin, "I think they do a better job than I would." Calvin's father is shown to be very concerned with the building of character in a number of strips, though this is often also used as a comic device, either in the things he makes Calvin do or in the eccentricities of his own lifestyle. For instance, in several strips he is shown coming home from an early morning bike ride in the snow, which he follows with a bowl of cold oatmeal.
Calvin's father is a patent attorney; his mother is a stay-at-home mom. Both remain unnamed except as "Mom" and "Dad", or pet names such as "honey" and "dear" between themselves. Watterson said "as far as the strip is concerned, they are important only as Calvin's mom and dad." Calvin's Uncle Max was once in the strip for a week and could not refer to the parents by name, which was one of the main reasons Max never reappeared.
Susie Derkins, the only important secondary character with both a given name and a family name, is a classmate of Calvin's who lives in his neighborhood. Named for the pet beagle of Watterson's wife's family, she appeared early in the strip as a new student in Calvin's class. She is polite and studious, with a mild imagination consisting of stereotypical young girl games such as playing house or having tea parties with her stuffed animals. However, she is also depicted playing imaginary games with Calvin in which she is a high-powered lawyer or politician and he is her house-husband. Though both of them hate to admit it, Calvin and Susie have quite a bit in common. For example, Susie is shown on occasion with a stuffed rabbit dubbed "Mr. Bun", and Calvin, of course, has Hobbes. Susie also has a mischievous (and sometimes aggressive) streak, which can be seen when she subverts Calvin's attempts to cheat on school tests by feeding him incorrect answers, or clobbers Calvin when he attacks her with snowballs. Susie also regularly bests Calvin in confrontations such as their water and snowball fights, employing guile or force. Hobbes often openly expresses his admiration for Susie, much to Calvin's disgust. Calvin starts a "club" (he and Hobbes are the only members) which he calls G.R.O.S.S. (Get Rid Of Slimy girlS) club, and while holding "meetings" in Calvin's treehouse, they usually come up with some way to annoy or socially maim Susie, most of which usually backfire on them completely. Watterson admits that Calvin and Susie have a nascent crush on each other, and that Susie is inspired by the type of woman that he himself found attractive and eventually married.
Rosalyn is Calvin's babysitter. She takes advantage of his parents' desperation to leave the house by demanding advances and raises. In her final appearance in the strip, she at last forces Calvin to behave by using his own haphazard rules against him during a game of Calvinball. She is also probably the only character in the strip that Calvin really fears, as she does not mince words or actions to get Calvin to behave or go to bed on time.
Moe is the stereotypical bully character, a large, cruel, dimwitted "six-year-old who shaves" who—in nearly all of his appearances—shoves Calvin against walls or onto the ground while demanding his lunch money and calling him "Twinky", "Twinkie", or occasionally "Squirt". Moe is the only regular character who speaks in an unusual font: his (frequently monosyllabic) dialogue is shown in crude, lower-case letters. Watterson describes Moe as "every jerk I've ever known."
Miss Wormwood is Calvin's world-weary teacher, named after the junior devil in C. S. Lewis' The Screwtape Letters. She usually wears polka-dotted dresses, and is another character who serves as a foil to Calvin's mischief. Calvin, when in his Spaceman Spiff persona, sees Miss Wormwood as a slimy, often dictatorial alien. Calvin has occasionally made references to her getting indigestion ("It's really gross how she drinks Maalox straight from the bottle"), taking various medicinal drugs ("I wonder if her doctor knows she mixes all those prescriptions") and smoking ("Rumor has it she's up to two packs a day, unfiltered"), while Miss Wormwood herself once reacted to Calvin's behavior by squinting her eyes and thinking "Five years until retirement" repeatedly. Watterson describes her as "an unhappy person", due to her belief in the value of education.
There are many gags in this strip, some in reality and others from imagination. The gags are as follows:
- Main article: Calvin's alter egos (Calvin and Hobbes)
- As "Stupendous Man" he pictures himself as a superhero in disguise, wearing a mask and a cape made by his mother and narrating his own adventures. Stupendous Man almost always "suffers defeat" to his opponent, usually Calvin's mother ("evil mom lady"). When Hobbes asks if Stupendous Man has ever won any battles, Calvin says all his battles are "moral victories."
- "Spaceman Spiff" is a heroic spacefarer who narrates his experiences in the third person. As Spiff, Calvin battles aliens (typically his parents or teacher) with a ray gun known as a "zorcher" (a water gun) and travels to distant planets (his house, school, or neighborhood). Calvin's self-narration as Spaceman Spiff is frequently riddled with alliteration: "Zounds! Zorched by zarches, Spaceman Spiff's crippled craft crashes on planet Plootarg!"
- "Tracer Bullet," a hardboiled private eye, says he has eight slugs in him. "One's lead, and the rest are bourbon." In one story Bullet is called to a case in which a "pushy dame" (Calvin's mother) accuses him of destroying an expensive lamp (broken during an indoor football game between Calvin and Hobbes). Later, he is snatched by the pushy dame's "hired goon" (Calvin's father having a talk with him).
Over the years Calvin has had several adventures involving corrugated cardboard boxes which he adapts for many different uses. In one strip, during which Calvin shows off his Transmogrifier—a device that transforms its user into any desired shape—Hobbes remarks "It's amazing what they do with corrugated cardboard these days." Calvin is able to change the function of the boxes by rewriting the label and flipping the box onto another side. When used in this manner, a cardboard box can become not only conventional childhood inventions, (a storage container for water balloons, for instance) but also a flying time machine and a duplicator. In addition, Calvin utilizes a cardboard box as a desk when he is attempting to sell things. Oftentimes, his merchandise is something that no one would want, such as "A swift kick in the butt" for one dollar, or a "Frank appraisal of your looks" for fifty cents.
Other kids' games are all such a bore!
They've gotta have rules and they gotta keep score!
Calvinball is better by far!
It's never the same! It's always bizarre!
You don't need a team or a referee!
You know that it's great, 'cause it's named after me!
—The Calvinball theme song
Calvinball is a game played by Calvin and Hobbes as a rebellion against organized team sports; according to Hobbes, "No sport is less organized than Calvinball!" Although the first depicted game of Calvinball followed Calvin's failure to join the baseball team, the game appears in such a complete form there that it is likely Calvin and Hobbes had been playing it for a long time beforehand.
The only hint at the true creation of the game comes from the last Calvinball strip, where a game of football quickly changes into a game of Calvinball. Calvin remarks "sooner or later, all our games turn into Calvinball," suggesting a similar scenario that directly led to the creation of the sport. Calvin and Hobbes usually play by themselves, although Rosalyn (Calvin's baby-sitter) plays once in return for Calvin doing his homework, and does very well for herself after eventually realizing that the rules are made up on the spot.
The only consistent rule states that Calvinball may never be played with the same rules twice. Scoring is also arbitrary, with Hobbes at times reporting scores of "Q to 12" and "oogy to boogy." The only recognizable sports Calvinball resembles are the ones it emulates (i.e., a cross between croquet, polo, badminton, capture the flag, and volleyball.) Equipment includes a volleyball (the eponymous "Calvinball"), a soccer ball, a croquet set, a badminton set, assorted flags, bags, signs, and a hobby horse. Other things appear as needed, such as a bucket of ice-cold water, a water balloon, and various songs and poetry. Players also wear masks resembling blindfolds with holes for the eyes. When Rosalyn asks Calvin the reason for the requirement, Calvin responds, "Sorry, no one's allowed to question the masks."  When asked how to play, Watterson states, "It's pretty simple: you make up the rules as you go." Calvinball is a nomic or self-modifying game, a contest of wits and creativity rather than stamina or athletic skill, in which Hobbes (and on one occasion, Rosalyn) usually outwits Calvin, who takes it in stride, in contrast to his otherwise bad sportsmanship.
Wagon and sled
Calvin and Hobbes frequently ride downhill in a wagon, sled, or toboggan, depending on the season, as a device to add some physical comedy to the strip and because, according to Watterson, "it's a lot more interesting ... than talking heads." While the ride is sometimes the focus of the strip, it also frequently serves as a counterpoint or visual metaphor while Calvin ponders the meaning of life, death, God, or a variety of other weighty subjects. Many of their rides end in spectacular crashes which leave them battered and broken, a fact which convinces Hobbes to sometimes hop off before a ride even begins. In the final strip, Calvin and Hobbes depart on their toboggan to go exploring.
- Main article: List of Calvin and Hobbes books
There are 18 Calvin and Hobbes books, published from 1987 to 2005. These include 11 collections, which form a complete archive of the newspaper strips, except for a single daily strip from November 28, 1985. (The collections do contain a strip for this date, but it is not the same strip that appeared in some newspapers. The alternate strip, a joke about Hobbes taking a bath in the washing machine, has circulated around the Internet.) Treasuries usually combine the two preceding collections with bonus material and include color reprints of Sunday comics.
Watterson included some new material in the treasuries. In The Essential Calvin and Hobbes, which includes cartoons from the collections Calvin and Hobbes and Something Under the Bed Is Drooling, the back cover features a scene of a giant Calvin rampaging through a town. The scene is based on Watterson's home town of Chagrin Falls, Ohio, and Calvin is holding the Chagrin Falls Popcorn Shop, an iconic candy and ice cream shop overlooking the town's namesake falls. Several of the treasuries incorporate additional poetry; The Indispensable Calvin and Hobbes book features a set of poems, ranging from just a few lines to an entire page, that cover topics such as Calvin's mother's "hindsight" and exploring the woods. In The Essential Calvin and Hobbes, Watterson presents a long poem explaining a night's battle against a monster from Calvin's perspective.
A complete collection of Calvin and Hobbes strips, in three hardcover volumes totaling 1440 pages, was released on October 4, 2005, by Andrews McMeel Publishing. It includes color prints of the art used on paperback covers, the treasuries' extra illustrated stories and poems, and a new introduction by Bill Watterson. The alternate 1985 strip is still omitted, and two other strips (January 7, 1987, and November 25, 1988) have altered dialogue.
To celebrate the release (which coincided with the strip's 20-year anniversary and the 10-year anniversary of its absence from newspapers), Calvin and Hobbes reruns were made available to newspapers from Sunday, September 4, 2005, through Saturday, December 31, 2005, and Bill Watterson answered fifteen questions submitted by readers.
Early books were printed in smaller format in black and white. These were later reproduced in twos in color in the "Treasuries" (Essential, Authoritative, and Indispensable), except for the contents of Attack of the Deranged Mutant Killer Monster Snow Goons. Those Sunday strips were not reprinted in color until the Complete collection was finally published in 2005. Every book since Snow Goons has been printed in a larger format with Sundays in color and weekday and Saturday strips larger than they appeared in most newspapers.
Watterson claims he named the books the "Essential, Authoritative, and Indispensable" because, as he says in The Calvin and Hobbes Tenth Anniversary Book, the books are "obviously none of these things".
An officially licensed children's textbook titled Teaching with Calvin and Hobbes was published in a single print-run in 1993. The book includes various Calvin and Hobbes strips together with lessons and questions to follow, such as, "What do you think the principal meant when he said they had quite a file on Calvin?" (108). The book is rare and increasingly sought by collectors.
In her book When Toys Come Alive, Lois Rostow Kuznets says that Hobbes serves both as a figure of Calvin's childish fantasy life and as an outlet for the expression of libidinous desires more associated with adults. Kuznets also looks at Calvin's other fantasies, suggesting that they are a second tier of fantasies utilized in places like school where transitional objects such as Hobbes would not be socially acceptable. Another academic critic, Philip Sandifer, using the psychoanalytic theories of Jacques Lacan, identifies the strip's depiction of time within Calvin's real and imaginary worlds as a manifestation of the Lacanian concepts of the Imaginary, the Real, and the Symbolic.
A collection of original Sunday strips was exhibited at Ohio State University's Cartoon Research Library in 2001. Watterson himself selected the strips and provided his own commentary for the exhibition catalog, which was published widely as Calvin and Hobbes Sunday Pages 1985-1995.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 John Campanelli (February 1, 2010). "'Calvin and Hobbes' fans still pine 15 years after its exit". The Plain Dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/living/index.ssf/2010/02/bill_watterson_creator_of_belo.html. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- ↑ "Calvin and Hobbes Trivia". Andrews McMeel Publishing. http://www.andrewsmcmeel.com/calvinandhobbes/trivia.html. Retrieved 2007-05-12.
- ↑ David Astor (November 4, 1989). "Watterson and Walker Differ On Comics: "Calvin and Hobbes" creator criticizes today's cartooning while "Beetle Bailey"/"Hi and Lois" creator defends it at meeting". Editor and Publisher. p. 78.
- ↑ "2010 Stamp Program Unveiled". http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/2009/pr09_118.htm/. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- ↑ Watterson, Bill (1990). "Some thoughts on the real world by one who glimpsed it and fled". http://home3.inet.tele.dk/stadil/spe_kc.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-16.
- ↑ Neely Tucker (October 4, 2005). "The Tiger Strikes Again". Washington Post. p. C01.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Paul Dean (May 26, 1987). "Calvin and Hobbes Creator Draws On the Simple Life". Los Angeles Times.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Andrew Christie (January 1987). "An Interview With Bill Watterson: The creator of Calvin and Hobbes on cartooning, syndicates, Garfield, Charles Schulz, and editors". Honk magazine.
- ↑ "NCS Reuben Award winners (1975–present)". National Cartoonists Society. http://www.reuben.org/ncs/archive/divisions/reuben2.asp. Retrieved July 12, 2005.
- ↑ "The Complete Calvin and Hobbes". Andrews McMeel Press Release. Andrews & McMeel. http://www.andrewsmcmeel.com/calvinandhobbes/pr_calvin.html. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Watterson (2005), vol. 3, p. 481. Comic originally published 1995-12-31.
- ↑ Template:Cite episode “In the final strip, Calvin and Hobbes put aside their conflicts and rode their sled into a snowy forest. They left behind a hole in the comics page that no strip has been able to fill.”
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Richard Samuel West (February 1989). "Interview: Bill Watterson". Comics Journal (127). http://ignatz.brinkster.net/ccomicsjournal.html.
- ↑ David Astor (December 3, 1988). "Watterson Knocks the Shrinking of Comics". Editor and Publisher. p. 40.
- ↑ Watterson, Bill (1989). "The Cheapening of Comics". PlanetCartoonist. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20070209234303/http://www.planetcartoonist.com/editorial/state_watterson.shtml. Retrieved 2006-03-16.
- ↑ Astor, David (1991-03-30). "Nine-month Vacation For Bill Watterson". Editor & Publisher. p. 34.
- ↑ Astor, David (1992-03-07). "Cartoonists discuss 'Calvin' requirement". Editor & Publisher. p. 34. http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/article_brief/eandp/1/1165165. Retrieved 2007-01-19.
- ↑ Watterson, Bill (September 2001). Calvin and Hobbes: Sunday Pages 1985–1995. Kansas City, MO: A. McMeel Pub.. p. 15. ISBN 0-7407-2135-6.
- ↑ Watterson (1995), p. 11
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 "Fans From Around the World Interview Bill Watterson". Andrews McMeel. 2005. http://www.andrewsmcmeel.com/calvinandhobbes/interview.html. Retrieved 2006-03-16.
- ↑ "A Concise Guide To All Legitimate (and some not-so-legitimate) Merchandise". http://ignatz.brinkster.net/citems.html. Retrieved 2006-03-16.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Holmen, Linda (1993). Teaching with Calvin and Hobbes. Playground. ISBN 1-878849-15-8.
- ↑ Bluedorn, Hans (2002). "The Fallacy Detective. Christian Logic. ISBN 0974531502.
- ↑ Watterson (1995), p. 12
- ↑ Bernstein, Adam (1997-07-17). "Calvin's Unauthorized Leak: Stock Car Fans Misuse Comics Character". Washington Post. p. B9.
- ↑ Watterson (1995), p. 200.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Watterson (1995), p. 20
- ↑ Watterson, Bill (2001). Calvin and Hobbes Sunday Pages 1985–1995. Andrews McMeel. ISBN 0-7407-2135-6.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 Watterson, Bill (October 1995). The Calvin and Hobbes Tenth Anniversary Book. Andrews McMeel. ISBN 0-8362-0438-7.
- ↑ Singh, Simon (2006). Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-0007162208.
- ↑ "Calling 'Big Bang' a Dud, Journal Seeks New Name". New York Times. 1993-06-11. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7D91E31F932A25755C0A965958260. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- ↑ "We are wandering stardust". Daily Telegraph. 2004-10-17. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2004/10/24/bosin24.xml&sSheet=/arts/2004/10/24/bomain.html. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- ↑ Kerby Anderson, Raymond G. Bohlin (2000). Creation, Evolution, and Modern Science. Kregel Publications. http://books.google.com/books?id=1fKKq44B9ewC&pg=PA47&lpg=PA47&dq=horrendous+space+kablooie&source=web&ots=7nqBdyomTS&sig=Z_vy0eBD0gIEKEqqwLZSRcbDF-I. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- ↑ Eric Linder. "Cosmology Summary". http://supernova.lbl.gov/~evlinder/umass/sumold/subsum.html. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- ↑ Caroline Moseley. "Faculty team serves up a slice of the universe". Princeton Weekly Review. http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pwb/01/0507/3a.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- ↑ Watterson, Bill (1995). Calvin and Hobbes Tenth Anniversary Book. Andrews and McMeel. p. 21. ISBN 0-8362-0438-7.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 1, p. 303. Comic originally published 1987-07-26.
- ↑ Williams, Gene (1987). Watterson: Calvin's other alter ego.
- ↑ Watterson, Bill (1995). Calvin and Hobbes Tenth Anniversary Book. Andrews and McMeel. p. 22. ISBN 0-8362-0438-7.
- ↑ Bill Watterson. "Cast of Characters". The Complete Calvin and Hobbes (press release). Andrew McMeel. http://www.andrewsmcmeel.com/calvinandhobbes/characters.html. Retrieved 2006-03-19.
- ↑ Watterson (1995), p. 25
- ↑ Attack of the Deranged Mutant Killer Monster Snow Goons This is probably Calvin's most common alter ego. p 95
- ↑ The Essential Calvin and Hobbes p 229
- ↑ Watterson (1995), p. 172
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 3, p. 432. Comic originally published 1995-09-11.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 2, pp. 268–273. Comics originally published 1990-04-16 to 1990-05-05.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 3, p. 438. Comic originally published 1995-09-24.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Watterson (2005), vol. 3, pp. 430–433. Comics originally published 1995-09-04 to 1995-09-16.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 2, p. 292. Comic originally published 1990-05-27.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 2, pp. 292, 336. Comics originally published 1990-05-27 and 1990-08-26.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 2, pp. 273, 292, 336, 429; vol 3, pp. 430–433, 438. Comics originally published 1990-05-05, 1990-05-27, 1990-08-26, 1991-03-31, 1995-09-04 to 1995-09-16, and 1995-09-24.
- ↑ Watterson (1995), p. 129.
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 Watterson (1995), p. 104.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 2, pp. 233, 325. Comics originally published 1990-01-07 and 1990-08-10.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 1, pp. 26, 56, 217; vol. 2, pp. 120, 237, 267, 298, 443; vol 3, pp. 16, 170, 224, 326, 414. Comics originally published 1985-11-30, 1986-02-07, 1987-01-11, 1989-05-28, 1990-02-04, 1990-04-15, 1990-06-10, 1992-02-02, 1992-05-17, 1993-04-18, 1993-08-22, 1995-01-14, and 1995-07-30.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 2, p. 373. Comic originally published 1990-12-01.
- ↑ Comparison of alternate strip from November 28, 1985
- ↑ Milicia, Joe (2005-10-22). "Calvin and Hobbes Creator Keeps Privacy". Associated Press. http://ignatz.brinkster.net/cprivacy.html. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
- ↑ Watterson (2005), vol. 1, p. 215; vol. 2, p. 33.
- ↑ Watterson (1995), p. 43.
- ↑ Watterson, Bill (1990). Weirdos from Another Planet!. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel. p. 125. ISBN 0-8362-1862-0.
- ↑ "Calvin and Hobbes - We're Back!". Universal Press Syndicate. September 4, 2005. http://www.amuniversal.com/ups/features/thereturn. Retrieved 2006-03-17.
- ↑ David Astor (May 20, 2005). "Calvin and Hobbes Returning to Newspapers — Sort Of". Editor and Publisher. http://www.andrewsmcmeel.com/calvinandhobbes/returning.html.
- ↑ "Teaching with Calvin and Hobbes: Information Regarding The Book". http://teachingwithcalvinandhobbes.blogspot.com/. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
- ↑ Kuznets, Lois Rostow (1994). When Toys Come Alive. Yale University Press.
- ↑ Sandifer, Philip. "When Real Things Happen to Imaginary Tigers". Imagetext Interdisciplinary Comic Studies. University of Florida. http://www.english.ufl.edu/imagetext/archives/v3_3/sandifer/. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- ↑ "Calvin and Hobbes Sunday Pages 1985-1995 (Paperback)". (See product description for explanation by Lucy Caswell, curator of the exhibition). Amazon.ca. 2001-06. http://www.amazon.ca/Calvin-Hobbes-Sunday-Pages-1985-1995/dp/0740721356. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- ↑ Jupitus, Phill (2009-09-22). "Calvin and Hobbes". BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00mr2fj. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
- Watterson, Bill (1995). The Calvin and Hobbes Tenth Anniversary Book. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel. ISBN 0-8362-0438-7.
- Watterson, Bill (2005). The Complete Calvin and Hobbes. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-4847-5.
- Official sites
- CalvinAndHobbes.com: The Official Calvin and Hobbes site at GoComics
- Official Calvin and Hobbes Publicity site at Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC
- Fan sites
- "Radio show in which fans of the comic strip express their views about the ending of Calvin and Hobbes" (MP3). CBC Canada. 1995. http://www.theheartofgold.org/jumpstation/calvin_hobbes_radio_show.html.
- "Review of The Complete Calvin and Hobbes featuring an interview with Bill Watterson's editor Lee Salem" (Real, Windows Media). NPR. 2005. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5007825.
- Further reading
- Chris Suellentrop (November 7, 2005). "The last great newspaper comic strip". Slate (magazine). http://www.slate.com/id/2129373.
- Neely Tucker (October 4, 2005). "The Tiger Strikes Again". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/03/AR2005100301754.html.